[PARA10N] Lec 2: Soil-Transmitted Parasites

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Soil-transmitted helminths

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Soil-transmitted helminths

Most common parasitic infections worldwide according to WHO

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Stage 2

In this stage of STH infections, other individuals are infected through ingestion of food via contaminated food or dirty hands, or by larvae penetrating the skin

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Stage 1

In this stage of STH infections, infected individuals contaminate soil with feces containing helminth eggs. Eggs develop in the soil into its infective stage.

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Stage 3

In this stage of STH infections, , the eggs develop further in the infected individuals, thus repeating the cycle all over again. The eggs or larvae develop into adult worms which produce eggs.

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Ascaris Lumbricoides

Most common intestinal roundworm

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2 and 1/2 - 3 months

Duration of the life cycle of ascaris lumbricoides

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Whipworm

Common name of Trichuris Trichiura

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Large intestine (cecum)

Habitat of Trichuris Trichiura

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Trichuris Trichiura: Adult Male

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>

Identify the parasite being shown

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>
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Trichuris Trichiura: Adult Female

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>

Identify the parasite being shown

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>
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Embryonated egg

Infective stage of Ascaris Lumbricoides

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Selective deworming

Integrated helminth control program for women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and special population groups.

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Strongyloides Stercoralis

Commonly called as Threadworm

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Strongyloides Stercoralis

The only species capable of autoinfection

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Stage 1

Identify which stage of the life cycle of Trichuris Trichiura is the following:

After the ingestion of embryonated eggs, the larvae hatch in the small intestines

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Stage 3

Identify which stage of the life cycle of Trichuris Trichiura is the following:

Larvae matures into adults and inhabits the cecum and colon

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Stage 2

Identify which stage of the life cycle of Trichuris Trichiura is the following:

Larvae penetrate the intestinal wall. This step takes 3-10 days

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Stage 4

Identify which stage of the life cycle of Trichuris Trichiura is the following:

Reproduction takes place. Females lay embryonated eggs which will be passed out with feces and into the soil

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Stage 5

Identify which stage of the life cycle of Trichuris Trichiura is the following:

In case the infected individual has poor defecating habits (e.g. defecates on the soil), the eggs develop and become embryonated within 2 -3 weeks

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Neglected Tropical Disease

These are communicable diseases of viral, bacterial, or parasitic origin affecting poor communities globally

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Diagnostic stage

This stage is usually seen in the feces of an individual infected with ascaris lumbricoides.

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Male Adult Hookworm

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>

Identify the parasite being shown

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>
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Female Adult Hookworm

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>

Identify the parasite being shown

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>
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True

True or False

Both male and female adult hookworms have well-developed buccal capsules.

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Adult male ascaris lumbricoides

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>

Identify the parasite being shown

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>
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Adult female ascaris lumbricoides

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>

Identify the parasite being shown

<p>Identify the parasite being shown</p>
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True

True or False

The presence of an unfertilized ascaris lumbricoides egg may be an indicator of the absence of males.

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Soil-transmitted helminths

This is also called "diseases of the poor"

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Embryonated egg

What do you call the inside of Trichuris trichiura's egg which is protected by a thick, brown egg shell?

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Ancylostoma ceylanicum

What type of hookworm has 2 pairs of ventral teeth? (the outer pair is larger than the inner pair)

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bura copulatrix

What is the fan-like formation in the posterior end of adult male hookworm?

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False

True or False

Adult Trichuris trichiura males are generally longer than the adult females.

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Filariform

Which larval form refers to the infective stage of hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis?

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5,000

For an infection of Trichuris trichiura be considered chronic, there should be more than _______ eggs/gm feces.

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True

True or False

The treatment, control, and prevention measures for Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris are the same.

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9,000 to 30,000

How many eggs can adult female hookworms lay per day?

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Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale

Two species of hookworms affecting man

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Ancylostoma caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense

Two species of hookworms affecting animals

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Forked or notched

Posterior - Hookworms: tapering Strongyloides stercoralis: ____________

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Albendazole: 400 mg, single dose Mebendazole: 500 mg Pyrantel pamoate: 10 mg/kg body weight

Matching Type

Treatment of Ascaris lumbricoides infection

I. Albendazole II. Mebendazole III. Pyrantel pamoate

A. 500 mg B. 400 mg, single dose C. 10 mg/kg body weight

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