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John Wilkes Booth

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US History

ch 15-22

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John Wilkes Booth

The man who assassinated Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865 at Ford’s Theater. He was a part of a conspiracy to target members of government.

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Wade-Davis Bill

Congress created the bill in July of 1864 that made the majority of white men pledge an oath and that the states must have governments formed by those who hadn’t served in the war. Lincoln wanted a compromise between the two and vetoed the bill.

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Andrew Johnson

The Unionist Democrat who was president after Lincoln set up his own plan for Reconstruction. It entailed Southerners taking a loyalty oath, states reentering the union and removing financial burdens of debt. He was a tailor supported by laborers and farmers who was loyal to the Union when Tennessee seceded. He was appointed Tennessee’s military governor by Lincoln. His official dismissal of Stanton led to the House of Representatives trying to impeach him.

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Black Codes

New southern government legislation, allowed under Johnson's plan, basically restored slavery, forcing former slaves back onto plantations in 1865. There were severe punishments for those who didn’t cooperate and follow economic interests.

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Freedmen’s Bureau

in March 1864 aided displaced African-Americans and was extended by the Civil Rights Act of 1866 which gave citizenship and full access to courts. Then it began to supply less money to support the South’s reforms in 1873 and the investment capital made by Republicans was nowhere to be seen. Public credit plummeted and there was heavy interest in bonds. Members often interfered with unfair labor contracts and bargained to get the best payments.

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Trumbull’s Bill

Proposed by Lyman Trumbull in 1866, extended the provisions of the freedmen’s bureau to encompass freedmen everywhere and not just in ex-confederate states, as well as removing an expiration date.

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Fourteenth Amendment

in 1868 gave citizenship to those who were born in the US and “equal protection”. Johnson opposed the amendment but it went through because of the Radical Republicans majority and Charles Sumner, who had been nearly killed by another congressman over abolition.

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Radical Republicans

Founded in 1854 and supported the radical reconstruction plan

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The Reconstruction Act of 1867

divided the South and put a military general in charge. Once the requirements of registering all adult males, supervising the state conventions, and that the new constitutions produced included black men, the states could rejoin the Union. Johnson also tried to veto this Act.

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The Tenure of Office Act

In force between 1867 to 1887 to restrict the power of the president, enacted after the veto of Johnson in 1867.

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Edwin M. Stanton

Johnson suspended him for being a radical, in August 1867 and replaced him with Ulysses S. Grant, expecting him to follow orders. However he opposed Johnson and resigned to give his position back to Stanton. Johnson’s official dismissal of Stanton led to the House of Representatives trying to impeach him.

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Fifteenth Amendment

In February of 1869, protecting male citizen’s right to vote but there was a poll tax for the “privilege of voting” and literacy requirements, disputed by the Republicans.

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nicknames in the south

Southern white who supported the reforms scalawags (“worthless animals”) and northern whites as carpetbaggers, referring to cheap suitcases

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Southern Homestead Act of 1866

opened 46 million acres to former slaves in Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida

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When cotton plantations lacked money to pay their workers, they paid in crop. This became known as ____, where freedmen exchanged crops for housing or seed. Laborers sharing risk and return with landowners was an effective strategy for the economy that was based on the cash crop.

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 Where an employer makes an employee pay off debt with work, the system was outlawed in 1867 by Congress.

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Nathan Bedford Forrest

born in poverty but became a large slave trader and planter in Mississippi. He fought in the battle of Shiloh for the Confederacy and his troops started the massacre at Fort Pillow, which killed black Union soldiers who were trying to surrender. As he tried to regain his fortune, the KKK plotted against him, sometimes merging with the Democratic party. he then joined after the Democratic national convention in 1868.

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U.S. v. Cruikshank (1876)

In 1873, the slaughter-house cases undermined the authority of the 14th amendment. Argued that the federal protection was trivial and minor. Cruikshank arose because of the murders of African American farmers in Louisiana that was followed by a Democrat coup. The ruling was if former slaves’ rights were violated, and it was by individuals or groups, the federal government wouldn't intervene. The amendment couldn’t protect citizens from violence or when violent groups gained power politically.

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The Prostrate State

written by Jame M. Pike in 1873 which described South Carolina as under attack by blacks

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The Whiskey Ring

another scandal that didn’t pay the federal taxes on whisky and the leader was Grant’s secretary, Orville Babcock. He wasn’t arrested as other members of the group were, as Grant vouched for him.

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Freedman’s Savings and Trust Company

a private bank, founded in 1865 that gave money to the Bureau and the Union Army in the south. In the 1870s, directors took risky loans and the bank ultimately failed in 1874, creating harsh consequences for the black communities that relied on it. Congress didn’t compensate the 61,00 depositors.

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Home Rule

Local self-government/autonomy that is granted to a region or state

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Transcontinental Railroad

The first continuous rail line, there was a plethora of jobs and money to be made from it. San Francisco became a city full of imports, going from $7.4 to $49 million in 30 years.

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Treaty of Kanagawa

The U.S. also wanted Japan to remove its isolationist policies to trade. Commodore Matthew Perry signed the ______ in 1854, which allowed ships to go into 2 ports.

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Munn v. Illinois (1877)

the Supreme Court ruled that states could regulate businesses such as railroads because they tied into general welfare. With the fear of stagnating businesses due to over-regulation, the 14th Amendment was quoted to protect businesses in the 1870s. 

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Crime of 1873

when gold was chosen over silver by Congress. This led the Treasury to stop minting silver and retire the greenbacks over 6 years, replacing them with notes from the national bank. 

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Morrill Act

The Federal Department of Agriculture was created in 1862 and the _________ allotted 140 million acres to sell to raise money for public universities. The Land-grant colleges were put in place to increase educational opportunities and promote enterprise and inventions.

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Comstock Lode

The discovery of gold and other precious metals in the West such as ______ in Nevada, aided in the pursuit of the gold standard in the U.S.

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Long Drive

a result of the new lucrative cattle business. Cowboys would herd cattle to new rail lines that went into Kansas and it became a symbol of the Wild West. In the 1880s, 7.5 million cattle were grazing on the plains until 1886.

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“Rain Follows the Plow”

The wet seasons from 1878 to 1886 made the fertile lands even more desirable and produced this idea and that settlement brought rain while some just attributed it to God.

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For some African Americans, the plains represented a chance for economic freedom and an increasing amount of whole communities left behind violence and poverty. Primarily settling in Kansas and it became the largest settlement in the West besides Texas.

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Dry Farming

Land is plowed and seeds are planted deeply to hold moisture in the soil of dry regions.

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John Wesley Powell

his Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States in 1879 he had informed Congress that the 160-acre homesteads wouldn’t work and urged them to follow the Utah Mormon’s irrigation projects, only to be rejected and painted as vouching for corporations. Federal funding, however, paid for the irrigation networks in the West.

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Yellowstone Valley

Became the first national park and tourism boomed along with the creation of railroads. The Northern Pacific Railroad company supported the development and in the 1900s management policies were created to organize the increasing number of parks.

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Sand Creek Massacre

John M. Chivington of the Colorado militia tried to sign a treaty in 1864 but instead massacred an Indian camp filled with women and children. The Cheyennes joined the Arapahos and Sioux to attack white settlements.

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Dawes Severalty Act (1887)

targeted Indians to assimilate into American culture, created by Senator Henry L. Dawes, the leader in the Indian Rights Association. The goal of his plan was to force tribes onto homesteads instead of reservations. Instead, this facilitated the whites who aimed to buy the reservation lands.

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Battle of Little Big Horn

Joined by other tribes in Little Big Horn River, Sitting Bull defied the federal government’s orders but upheld their mutual treaty. When Lieutenant Colonel Custer and the 7th cavalry made of 210 men led an attack on the camp, they were all killed. Led to the justification of the conquest of native lands.

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Ghost Dance

a movement that was popular in the late 1880s and early 1890s in order to bring back the bison and solidify a pan-identity of fragmented tribes.

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Wounded Knee

an example of violence towards the Ghost Dance Movement, the 7th Calvary killed 150-300 Lakotas.

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P.T. Barnum

promoted commercial domesticity through circus shows on the rail networks. While there was segregation in his audience, he aimed to create family entertainment and promote the exercise of the middle class, as well as the respectability of his female performers.

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Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

about the civil rights of a ⅛ black man, Homer Plessy. He was made to sit on the “colored” car of the Louisiana train and when he refused, he was arrested. The Supreme Court ruled that segregation was allowed under the 14th Amendment as long as it was “separate but equal”. The ruling of Plessy showed that even though there were innovations and an increase in modernity, there was still prejudice.

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Jim Crow laws

Jim Crow was a minstrel show character and it became the name of the segregation laws. Public schools, parks, and commercial spaces became segregated. The laws were passed in 1954 in Brown v. Topeka Board of Education.

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YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association)

was established in Boston in 1851 where it focused on making white-collar workers “clean and strong” and making the workforce more organized. They claimed that sports instilled teamwork and pride in the company. 

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The Gibson Girl

Charles Gibson’s paintings captured the ideal “New Women” where women were more athletic and educated. With railroads, people could travel to national parks to camp and do leisure activities.

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Sierra Club

established by Muir in 1892, which focused on the great mountains throughout America. Since parks were popular and the activities they brought the government allotted more land for recreation.

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Booker T. Washington

founded the Tuskegee Institute in 1881, spreading the ideal of self-help in his autobiography, Up from Slavery. He claimed that industrial education would suit poverty-stricken African Americans more than book education. In 1895, he delivered the Atlanta Compromise address, which made him gain national attention.

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Leaders of separate women’s clubs came together to create the General Federation of Women’s Clubs in 1890, with the justification of _____. They claimed that the city is their family and their home so in true domestic fashion, they should be doing something to help it.

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Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)

Founded in 1874 and Frances Willard became the leader 5 years later. Women became increasingly involved in reform through the WCTU and their leader, Willard, phrased political demands and proposals in a way that portrayed feminine self-sacrifice, claiming “womanliness first, afterward, what you will”. WCTU members tried to stop alcoholism through the use of abused wives and children and their suffering.

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United Daughters of the Confederacy

In 1894, was created to promote the narrative of the South’s “Lost Cause” in textbooks, promotion of the Confederate flag, and segregation.

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Ida B. Wells

sued Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad for not giving her a seat in the ladies’ car. In 1892, a Memphis grocery store was overrun by a white mob and when the black store owners fought back, wounding their attackers, they were lynched. Wells then set up a campaign against lynching.

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The National Woman's Suffrage Association, the largest organization which led to the growth of the suffrage movement.

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Chicago’s 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition

It became an opportunity to claim a place among the world's most "civilized" societies, like Western Europe. The Chicago Fair honored art, architecture, science, and the latest innovations.

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On the Origin of Species

In 1859, Charles Darwin argued that all creatures struggle to survive and species are forever changing in his book, ________. Darwin also produced the idea of natural selection.

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Social Darwinism

Herbert Spencer, a British philosopher, produced the idea of _______ in the 1870s, claiming that humans advanced through “survival of the fittest”. William Graham was a professor at Yale that spread this theory and claimed that millionaires were the “naturally selected”.

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the “science” of human breeding and claimed that mentally challenged people shouldn’t reproduce, sterilizing them. About half of the states enacted laws on these ideals, with the movement slowing down in the 1930s, although thousands had been sterilized, in Virginia and California, with 1/3 of the victims being Puerto Rican women.

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With new inventions, intellectuals practiced “fact worship”, where hard facts about life were established through research. Some intellectuals went as far as to claim that the latest reform movements were just sentimental and rejected them. Artists and writers continued to detail real-life experiences through realism but also kept a humane emphasis in their art.

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In 1910, after Twain had died, writers started a movement called ______, rejecting traditional literary opinions and the idea of progress. Modernists tried to remove conventional ideas and tradition while focusing on the “primitive mind”. With new technology such as cameras, some argued that art was made obsolete.

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Social Gospel

A movement that aimed to alleviate social problems. Protestants also reacted to the influx of immigrants by evangelizing those who didn’t believe in god, or were “unchurched”. Renewing faith through means of justice and social welfare became the ______.

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In 1896, Charles Sheldon wrote In His Steps, which produced the idea of ______, teaching based on the fundamental truths in the Bible. In early meetings, heavenly redemption was the main focus.

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Billy Sunday

followed in Dwight Moody’s footsteps and brought politics into his Protestant ideals. He condemned drinking, labor movements, and unrestricted immigration. Sunday did support women's suffrage and opposed child labor. Sunday represented the growing nativist culture that emphasized masculinity rather than the Victorian ideal. Sunday advertised his sermons through baseball teams, political engagement, and overall entertainment factor.

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Vertical Aesthetic

Louis Sullivan pursued the idea of a ______ that would give the perception of a proud presence and offer natural light to workers

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Mutual Aid Societies

By 1903, the Italians of Chicago had formed 66 _______ to support one another through collected dues and fraternal clubs

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Houses were torn down by speculators and replaced with ____ which housed 20 families in airless apartments over 5 to 6 stories. Led to increased disease spreading and a high infant mortality rate.

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In the 1880s and 90s, the theater became popular, as there was an array of skits, magic shows, and musicals available. At first, the main audience was the working class but the appeal of entertainment spread.

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By 1910, black music was recognized in popular culture. W.C. Handy performed nationally with his band, popularizing this genre, singing of hard work and heartbreak, collective experiences that brought strangers together. Irving Berlin was a Russian Jewish immigrant who was inspired by Handy and published musical theater off of blues tunes.

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Yellow Journalism

In the 1890s, William Randolph Hearst provided competition through Sunday comics featuring the “yellow kid” which gave the derogatory name of this form of journalism to mass-market newspapers.

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Both Hearst and Pulitzer put pressure on the U.S. to start a war with Spain and exposed scandals, believing they spoke for ordinary Americans. Magazines such as the McClure gave a platform to Ida Tarbell, who exposed the inner workings of John D. Rockefeller. David Graham Phillips also exposed the republican U.S. senators in 1906 in the Cosmopolitan. Theodore Roosevelt called the journalists who focused on the negative aspects of life in America this nickname.

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Political Machines

Politicians that gained votes and political clout through favors. For example, George Washington Plunkitt was the leader of Tammany and had organized housing for families after the fire in Chicago. When Plunkitt’s 15th district started to be populated with Jews and Italians, he frequented Italian funerals and Jewish weddings to bring gifts and gain voters.

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Hull House

Established in Chicago’s west side in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. The idea of Hull House was based on Toynbee Hall in London. The social settlements included medical clinics, sometimes collaborated with the YMCA, and served as a bridge between the classes. Jane Addams sought to provide cultural programs for the poor but her view changed as funding was cut for the Hull House.

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As the effects of industrialization began to publicly manifest, people turned to _______ to solve the problems of the urban poor. Civic participation increased under reformers to improve tenements and slums.

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“How the Other Half Lives”

In 1890, Jacob Riis published ____________, detailing the plights of the poor in flash photography. His book influenced Theodore Roosevelt, who asked Riis to show him tenements and understand the problems through tours.

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Mann Act (1910)

Between 1909 and 1912, a large number of brothels closed, most of them being in red-light districts. Was passed by Congress, which outlawed prostitutes from traveling across state lines.

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“The Jungle”

In 1906, written by Upton Sinclair, described the gruesome conditions of meat packing plants in Chicago. While Sinclair meant to bring labor exploitation to light, the nation was focused on the conditions in which their food was produced. In response, the Pure Food and Drug Act was passed in 1906 in addition to the Food and Drug Administration to enforce it. It also showed that reformers can have an impact on national policies.

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Florence Kelley

Established the idea that only the government could protect and keep workers from exploitation. She served as the general secretary of the NCL.

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Triangle Shirtwaist Company

On March 25, 1911, the company caught on fire. Since the building wasn’t up to current safety laws, dozens were caught in the flames. Some jumped from windows to escape. The average age of the 146 people caught in the fire was 19, with many of them being immigrant women. Just a year earlier, there were protests about the working conditions.

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“Waving the Bloody Shirt”

A term of ridicule used in the 1880s and 1890s to refer to politicians- especially Republicans- who, according to critics, whipped up old animosities from the Civil War era that ought to be set aside.

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gilded age

The age between the Civil War and WWI was when the American economy grew rapidly and individuals were able to use monopolies to amass great wealth. Marked by political corruption and shady business deals.

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Pendleton Act (1883)

the federal legislation that created a system in which federal employees were chosen based upon competitive exams. This made job positions based on merit or ability and not inheritance or class. It also created the Civil Service Commission.

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The name Liberal Republicans was ridiculed by their political opponents after they had voted for the Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland because he shared their views on a smaller government. It meant fence-sitters who had their “mugs” on one side and their “wumps” on the other.

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Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)

Reformers pressured Congress to pass the ______. The act prohibited any contract, combination, or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states or with foreign nations.

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People’s Party

In 1890, the Knights of Labor joined the Kansas Alliance to create this party. The Party soon gained a majority of Kansas’s congressional seats and dominated the local legislature. Was formally formed in Nebraska in July 1892, where they proposed James B. Weaver to become the presidential candidate.

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Omaha Platform

Populists called for a strong government that could protect the people’s rights. In 1892, the Party claimed that there should be an elimination of private banks, federal storage facilities for crops, racing the rich, and a loan system for farmers.

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Free Silver

Cleveland tried to include silver in addition to gold in the federal coinage. Those who advocated for the free silver policy claimed that it would stimulate industry because there wasn’t a fee for minting silver coins.

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Poll Taxes (and other voting restrictions)

The grandfather clause in Louisiana had been struck down by the Supreme Court. In the case of Williams V. Mississippi (1898), the court allowed taxes on polls and literacy tests to be legal. Every southern state had adopted the voting measures by 1908. Voting decreased from 70% to 34% as many poor whites stopped voting as well.

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Solid South

Populists criticized the South for torturing prisoners and unpaid labor through jails. Convict leasing was then changed into the chain gang by “reforms”, where prisoners would work on roadbuilding under cruel conditions. This led to a Solid South political climate where Democrats had nearly complete power.

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“Cross of Gold” speech

Williams Jenning Bryan from Nebraska was one of the leaders of the reform, promising to protect farmer’s rights and criticize the gold standard. Bryan claimed that “you shall not crucify mankind on a cross of gold”, calling to action for politicians to endorse free silver and a tax on the wealthy.

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Lochner v. New York (1905)

the Supreme Court ruled that it couldn’t limit baker’s workdays to 10 hours because it would violate the rights of bakers to make contracts. The court claimed that such rulings pertained to the due process clause in the 14th Amendment.

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In re Jacobs (1882)

The New York court struck down a public health law in 1882 that prohibited cigar manufacturing in tenements. The court argued that such a law exceeded the state's police powers. A blow to workers' safety and was pro-business.

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Square Deal

In 1904, Roosevelt won against Alton B. Parker after promising Americans to get a ______, which was a domestic program based on control of corporations, consumer protection and conservation of natural resources.

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Elkins Act (1903)

Heavy fines could now be imposed both on the railroads that gave rebates and on the shippers that accepted them. Rebates were refunds to businesses which shipped large quantities on the railroads, and many railroad companies disliked it.

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Hepburn Act (1906)

Roosevelt passed this Act which allowed the Interstate Commerce Commission to create shipping prices. 

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John Muir

a Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of the preservation of wilderness in the United States, started the Sierra Mountain Club

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Robert La Follette

After Republican governor ________ was elected in Wisconsin, the state became a “laboratory of democracy”, promoting the Wisconsin Idea that greater government interference primarily in the economy would lead to more democracy.

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“Recall” and “Referendum”

Wisconsin’s citizens were also given the rights of recall, to remove politicians from office and the right of referendum where voters voted directly on laws instead of letting legislatures handle it. La Follette then became part of the U.S. Senate.

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Muller v. Oregon (1908)

In 1908, proved a win for working-class women, limiting their workday to 10 hours. It was especially significant when compared to the case of Lochner v. New York. To win the case the NCL hired Louis Brandeis, known as “the people’s lawyer”. To gain evidence for the case Brandeis recorded the toll that long working hours took on women, the records then were called the “Brandeis brief” which paved the way for social science research.

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W. E. B. Du Bois

African-American intellectual who challenged Booker T. Washington's ideas on combating Jim Crow; he called for the black community to demand immediate equality and was a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

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Booker T. Washington

An educator who urged African Americans to better themselves through education and economic advancement, rather than by trying to attain equal rights. In 1881 he founded the first formal school for blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.

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National Association for Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and opposed racism. Significance: promoted civil rights.

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The WFM (Western Federation of Miners) led by Willam “Big Bill” Haywood created the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in 1905. Members were called the Wobblies, and believed in syndicalism, where workers could overthrow capitalist practices in a general strike. In 1916, the IWW had about 100,000 members which started strikes on large corporations throughout the north.

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Eugene V. Debs

Socialist who also started to campaign for the election of 1912. In the 1890s he had founded ARU (American Railway Union) which was made of both unskilled and skilled workers, In 1894, the ARU boycotted the Pullman Company’s luxury cars as a way to support the workers that were on strike.

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