Patho exam 3

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aldosterone

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Health

153 Terms

1

aldosterone

hormone synthesized and released by the adrenal cortex, causes kidneys to reabsorb sodium

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2

antidiuretic hormone

hormone secreted by posterior pituitary gland, causes kidneys to reabsorb more water, also called vasopressin

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3

anuria

decreased urine output of less than 50mL in 24h

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4

bacteriuria

bacteria in the urine

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5

creatinine

endogenous waste product of muscle energy metabolism

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6

diuresis

increased urine volume

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7

dysuria

painful or difficult urination

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8

frequency

voiding more frequently than every 3 hours

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9

glomerular filtration rate

GFR, amount of plasma filtered through glomeruli per unit of time

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10

glomerulus

tuft of capillaries forming part of nephron through which filtration occurs

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11

hematuria

red blood cells in urine

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12

micturition

urination or voiding

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13

nephron

structural and functional unit of kidney responsible for urine formation

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14

oliguria

urine output less than 0.5 mL/kg/hr

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15

proteinuria

protein in the urine

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16

pyuria

presence of white blood cells in the urine; symptom of infection

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17

renal clearance

ability of kidneys to clear solutes from the plasma

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18

renal glycosuria

excretion of glucose in the urine

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19

specific gravity

expression of degree of concentration of the urine

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20

urea nitrogen

end product of protein metabolism

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21

stage 1 CKD

GFR: less than or equal to 90 mL/min/1.73m^3

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22

stage 2 CKD

GFR: 60-89 mL/min/1.73m^3

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23

stage 3 CKD

GFR: 30-59 mL/min/1.73m^3

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24

stage 4 CKD

15-29 mL/min/1.73m^3

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25

stage 5 CKD

less than 15 mL/min/1.73m^3

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26

diabetes

group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia

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27

diabetic ketoacidosis

DKA, metabolic derangement in type I diabetes that results from insulin deficiency, highly acidic ketone bodies are formed resulting in acidosis.

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28

fasting plasma glucose

FPG, blood glucose determination obtained in the lab after fasting at least 8 hours

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29

gestational diabetes

any degree of glucose intolerance with its onset during pregnancy

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30

glycated hemoglobin

A1c, measure of glucose control that is a result of glucose molecule attaching to hemoglobin for the life of the RBC

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31

hyperglycemia

elevated blood glucose level

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32

hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome

HHS, metabolic disorder of type 2 diabetes resulting from a relative insulin deficiency initiated by an illness that raises demand for insulin

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33

hypoglycemia

abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet

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34

impaired fasting glucose

metabolic stage intermediate between normal glucose homeostasis and diabetes (prediabetes)

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35

insulin

hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells

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36

insulin pump

continues subcutaneous insulin infusion device that delivers insulin on a 24h basis

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37

ketone

highly acidic substance formed when the liver breaks down free fatty acids in absence of insulin

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38

latent autoimmune diabetes of adults

LADA, subtype of diabetes, progression of autoimmune beta cell destruction in pancreas is slower than types 1 and 2

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39

medical nutrition therapy

MNT, nutritional therapy prescribed for management of diabetes usually given by registered dietician

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40

nephropathy

long-term complication of diabetes resulting from damage to the kidney cell, characterized by microalbuminuria in early stages and progressing to end-stage kidney disease

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41

prediabetes

impaired glucose metabolism in which blood glucose falls between normal and impaired glucose tolerance, not clinical entities in their own but risk factors for future diabetes and cardiovascular disease

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42

retinopathy

complication of diabetes in which small blood vessels that nourish the retina in the eye are damaged

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43

self-monitoring of blood glucose

SMBG, method of capillary blood glucose testing

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44

Type 1 diabetes

metabolic disorder characterized by absence of insulin production and secretion of autoimmune destruction of beta cells.

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45

Type 2 diabetes

metabolic disorder where relative deficiency of insulin production, decreased insulin action, increased insulin resistance

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46

acromegaly

progressive enlargement of peripheral body parts resulting from excessive growth hormone

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47

Addison disease

chronic adrenocortical insufficiency, characterized by hypotension, cyanosis, fever, nausea/vomiting, and signs of shock

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48

adrenalectomy

surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands

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49

adrenocorticotropic hormone

ACTH, hormone secreted by anterior pituitary, essential for growth and development

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50

adenogenital syndrome

masculinizaton in women, feminization in men, or premature sexual development in children, results in abnormal secretion of adrenocortical hormones, especially androgens

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51

androgens

male sex hormones

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52

basal metabolic rate

the rate at which chemical reactions are occurring when the body is at rest

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53

calcitonin

thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone

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54

chvostek sign

caused by hypocalcemia, spasm of facial muscles produced by facial nerve in front of parotid gland and anterior to the ear, suggestive of latent tetany in patients

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55

corticosteroids

hormones produced by the adrenal cortex or synthetic equivalents, also called adrenal-cortical hormone and adrenocorticosteroid, consist of glucocorticiods, mineralocorticoids,

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56

cushing syndrome

group of symptoms produced by an over secretion of ACTH, characterized by truncal obesity, "moon face", acne, and abnormal striae and hypersecretion

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57

diabetes insipidus

condition in which abnormally large volumes of dilute urine are excreted as a result of deficit production of vasopressin

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58

dwarfism

generalized limited growth resulting from insufficient secretion of growth hormone during childhood

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59

endocrine

secreting internally, hormone secretion of a ductless gland

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60

euthyroid

state of normal thyroid hormone production

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61

exocrine

secreting externally, hormone secretion from excretory ducts

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62

exophthalmos

abnormal protrusion of eyeballs

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63

glucocorticoids

Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to ATCH produce the rise of liver glycogen and blood glucose

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64

goiter

enlargement of thyroid gland

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65

Graves disease

form of hyperthyroidism characterized by a diffuse goiter and exophthalmos

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66

hormones

chemical transmitter substances produced in one organ and carried by blood stream to other cells or organs on which they have specific regulatory effect, produced mainly by endocrine glands

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67

hypophysectomy

reduction or destruction of all or part of pituitary gland

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68

mineralocorticoid

hormone that is one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences the metabolism of sodium and potassium

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69

myxedma

severe hypothyroidism, can be with or without coma

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70

negative feedback

increase or decrease in substance level causes increase or decrease in function of organ producing substance

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71

pheochromocytoma

adrenal medulla tumor

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72

syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone

(SIADH) excessive secretion of ADH from pituitary gland despite low serum osmolality level

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73

thyroidectomy

removal of all or part of thyroid gland

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74

thyroiditis

inflammation of thyroid gland. may lead to chronic hypothyroidism or may resolve spontaneously

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75

thyroid stimulating hormone

TSH, released from pituitary gland, causes stimulation of the thyroid, resulting in the release of T3 and T4

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76

thyroid storm

severe life-threatening hyperthyroidism precipitated by stress (high fever, extreme tachycardia, altered mental state)

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77

thyrotoxicosis

condition produced by excessive endogenous or exogenous thyroid hormone

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78

thyroxine

thyroid hormone, active iodine compound formed and stored in thyroid, deiodinated in peripheral tissues to form triiodothyronine, maintains body metabolism in a steady state

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79

hypothalamus hormones

corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) somatostatin dopamine

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80

anterior pituitary hormones

growth hormone adrenocorticotorpic hormone (ACTH) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) luteinizing hormone (LH) prolactin

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81

posterior pituitary hormones

antidiuretic hormone oxytocin

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82

adrenal cortex hormones

mineralocorticoids glucocorticoids adrenal androgens

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83

adrenal medulla hormones

epinephrine norepinephrine

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84

thyroid hormones

triiodothyronine (t3) thyroxine (t4) calcitonin

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85

dopamine function

movement, memory and pleasurable reward and motivation

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86

somatostatin function

inhibits GI, endocrine, exocrine, pancreatic, and pituitary secretions, and modifies neurotransmission and memory formation in the CNS

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87

growth hormone is triggered by

stress, sleep, and exercise

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88

adrenocorticotropic hormone function

triggers your adrenal glands to produce cortisol, the “stress hormone,” and androgens (a group of sex hormones)

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89

thyroid stimulating hormone function

tells your thyroid how much thyroid hormone it needs to make

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90

follicle stimulating hormone function

helps control the menstrual cycle and stimulates the growth of eggs in the ovaries

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91

luteinizing hormone function

helps control the menstrual cycle. triggers the release of an egg from the ovary

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92

prolactin function

causes the breasts to grow and make milk during pregnancy and after birth

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93

antidiuretic hormone function

helps blood vessels constrict and helps the kidneys control the amount of water and salt in the body. This helps control blood pressure and the amount of urine that is made. holds onto water

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94

oxytocin function

stimulates uterine contractions in labor and childbirth and to stimulate contractions of breast tissue to aid in lactation after childbirth.

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95

mineralocorticoid function

increase Na absorption, potassium loss by kidney (aldosterone)

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96

glucocorticoid function

affects metabolism of all nutrients, regulates blood glucose levels, growth, anti-inflammatory, decreases stress

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97

adrenal androgens function

help people enter puberty and mature physically

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98

epinephrine function

prepare an individual for “fight or flight” response

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99

norepinephrine function

increases heart rate and blood pumping from the heart. also increases blood pressure and helps break down fat and increase blood sugar levels to provide more energy to the body.

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100

triiodothyronine (t3) function

stimulates the nervous system resulting in increased wakefulness, alertness, and responsiveness to external stimuli.

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