ADW 111 Final Abbreviated

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Construction of Knowledge, Revolutionary Pedagogy, and Critical Consciousness

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1

Construction of Knowledge, Revolutionary Pedagogy, and Critical Consciousness

key points of this ADW Concept: ~ Knowledge is almost inevitably rooted in colonialism and bias that favors those in a higher class ~ society internalizes and automatically believes these facts ~ we cannot challenge this knowledge without realizing our own individualism ~ craft conversations that challenge those who teach us, become our own historians, and create communities where we can share knowledge

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2

Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Crick Crack, Gender as an Analytical Category, Fact Making and Feminism

the texts in the concept of "Construction of Knowledge, Revolutionary Pedagogy, and Critical Consciousness"

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3

Old World Provenance

key points of this ADW Concept: ~ uncovers the hidden wonders of Africa pre-slavery ~ Ethiopians, who were desired for their developments and beauty ~ Nubia, whose women took prominent positions in power ~ Islam, the oldest monotheistic religion in history that paved way for developments in mathematics, science, art, and education ~ sickly, exiled boy turned into a militarily powerful king through the prophecy that foretold his reign

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4

Reversing Sail Chapter 1 and 3, Sundiata

the texts in the concept of "Old World Provenance"

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5

Gender, Sexuality, and Heteronormativity

key points in this ADW concept: ~ these concepts often lead to marginalization of intersectional peoples ~ defines the concepts of gender, sex, sexuality and transgendering, including the ways that members of minoritized groups in each of these communities (or the communities themselves) can be discriminated against ~ contrasting heterosexual privileges with homosexual struggles with discrimination ~ many of these oppressions cause internalized oppressions that pit one group against the other without recognizing their similarities

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6

Age, Race, Class and Sex: Women Redefining Difference, Transgendering, The Heterosexual Checklist

texts in the concept of "Gender, Sexuality, and Heteronormativity"

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7

Framing and Defining Diaspora

key points in this concept: ~ uncovers not only the dictionary definition of “diaspora” but also its fluidity and significance within and outside of respective diaspora, in both historical and modern contexts ~ Diaspora is primarily defined by four central characteristics: the lack of sovereign boundaries, dispersal, home in hostland and its marginalization, and desire to return ~ Diaspora, because of its significance, has also become an identity, a condition— however, this identity has often been alienated or discussed solely in the terms of one modern group ~ the other races and influences within specifically the African Diaspora such as Asian and Latin identities ~ diaspora’s inspiration on not only social movements but on all aspects of political debate and discussion

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8

Unfinished Migrations

text in "Framing and Defining Diaspora"

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9

The Complexity of Identity Formations: Race

key points in this concept: ~ variety of factors including migration, homeland, and societal influences ~ social construct crafted by dispersal, imperialism and colonialism ~ monogenesis: the theory that all humans descend from a single ancestor ~ polygenesis: polygenesis, the theory that mankind derived from two creations: european/asian and native americans ~ Samuel Morton’s measuring of skulls, testing scores linked to genetic origin, and the transformation of identity through privilege (European settlers a specific identity that made them first Christians, then English, then free, then white). ~ Hyppolite describes their struggle with 1. Explaining and defining race and racism to her Haitian family, and 2. Combating stereotypes and discrimination due to her Haitian background

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10

Racial Formations, Dyaspora

texts in "The Complexity of Identity Formation: Race"

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11

The Indian Ocean

key points in this concept: ~ Due to the Silk Trade and Indian Ocean track which not only traded African/South Asian slaves but also their goods and culture, ~ they were not racial codified and instead distinguished by religion, ethnicity and caste. ~ Africans were highly favored by South Asian upper-classmen and royalty due to their social mobility, such as their integration of Islamic laws, the skills of African men and the in turn justification of emancipation. ~ Heena’s family, who identifies as Sihdi in Bombay, India ~ Although Heena has a desire to explore Africa, she and her family assert themselves with the Indian identity, claiming themselves Indian before Sihdi

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12

Voices of the Sihdis, Afro-South Asia in Global Africa Diaspora

texts in "The Indian Ocean"

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13

The Transatlantic Movement

key points in this concept: ~ commonly known by its process, the Transatlantic Slave trade ~ It was prompted primarily by the discovery and cultivation of sugarcane, where labor was needed in response to lack of slave labor in Iberia ~ stolen from Sao Tome, Principe, West Central Africa, Benin, Biafra, and the Gold Coast and being transported to Brazil, Haiti, Cuba, Trinidad, the United Staes and more ~ The Movement is thus not only defined geographically, but also socially: the dispersal of Africans from their homeland led to emotional distress and suffering, as well as our modern day understandings of race and diaspora.

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14

Reversing Sail Chapter 4, Map of the African Diaspora

texts in "The Transatlantic Moment"

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15

Enslavement

key points in this concept: ~ forced dispersal in Africa took the people from their continent and displaced them in the New World, including the countries of Jamaica, Brazil, Trinidad, Hispaniola, Cuba, and the US ~ pick cotton, sugarcane, and coffee beans, enduring horrific conditions without pay nor rest ~ Enslaved peoples were hazed, women suffered due to infant mortality, and families and identities were crushed ~ Plantations in the Caribbean often contained less than 100 people with managers that acted as overseers ~ Not all Africans were enslaved in these countries, but they were often mentally enslaved by being pitted against their African siblings and still ostracized by the White community

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16

Reversing Sail Chapter 5

text in "Enslavement"

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17

Asserting the Right to Be: Slavery and Resistance

key points in this concept: ~ a descriptive title for the Africans who simply fought to be regarded with the same rights that other human beings possessed ~ four primary ways: large-scale revolts, maroonage, workplace slowdown, and absconding ~ full-on independence in Haiti, to historical significance as with Harriet Tubman, to the formation of long lasting republics in Brazil’s Palmares communities, to unfortunate widespread massacres of revolting Africans ~ in the 19th century, British prohibited the import of New Slaves to British-owned territories in the Caribbean, which sparked widespread abolition of slavery across the New World ~ Africans still had to result to forced labor in order to gain wages, and racism and violence still persisted across the world

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18

Reversing Sail Chapter 6; I, Tituba: Black Witch of Salem

texts in "Asserting the Right to Be: Slavery and Resistance"

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19

Paulo Friere

author of Pedagogy of the Oppressed

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key points in Pedagogy of the Oppressed

~ banking education and how it must be reformed to include symbiotic conversation ~ students are then taught to accept the teachings and thus the world around them rather than change it --> gives oppressors power to marginalize ~ eliminate all forms of hierarchy by allowing students to consider information rather than realize it ~ The teacher and students should embody both roles

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"reject communiques and embody communication" (Friere, 10)

key quote in Pedagogy of the Oppressed

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22

Merle Collins

author of Crick Crack

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23

key points in Crick Crack

~ illustrates the ignorance of colonialism that has caused internalized oppression and marginalization within ourselves ~ "crick cracks" = tall tales ~ ignorance is clear within the lies we are told by our oppressors: how to distinguish internalized ignorance from reality ~ idea that their freedom was granted because of their oppressors— an argument that is contradictory and harmful

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24

"Tales of hunting will always glorify the hunter until the lioness is her own historian." (Collins, 19)

key quote in Crick Crack

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25

Beverly Guy-Shelftall

author of "Gender as an Analytical Category"

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26

key points in "Gender as an Analytical Category"

~ masculinity and femininity are seen in conjunction with biological man and woman; hence, gender roles are imposed that create a hierarchy that favors men ~ created by gender socialization and gender asymmetry, where gender is socially defined to oppress especially intersectional womxn ~ imposed without acknowledgement of the fact that women “provide the structural intellectual framework for transforming the world” (Guy-Sheftall, 88) nor that gender is “a function of historical process” (Guy Sheftall, 88)

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27

"Gender is a function of historical process..." (Guy-Sheftall, 88)

key quote in "Gender as an Analytical Category"

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28

Ruth Hubbard

author of Fact Making and Feminism

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29

key points in "Fact Making and Feminism"

~ Classism is obvious in the scientific community because proof of fact must be based on the established fact that those in higher power create ~ victimization of men in the scientific community leads to hierarchy in the working class ~ Women have time and time again produced knowledge even in the constraints of gender roles— however, if this work is not created within the guidelines of men’s personal preferences, it is dismissed ~ solution: women must create their own environments where they can work together and communicate with other individuals

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30

Michael Gomez

author of Reversing Sail

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31

key points in Reversing Sail Chapter 1

~ African-American experience did not start with slavery but rather the African people themselves, who were the “forefront of human civilization” ~ ethnocentricity of Egyptians, who regarded themselves as highly civilized and belonged to one the earliest developed and militarily powerful countries in Africa ~ Nubia is also discussed, where women and Queen Mothers played major roles in society and government ~ Skin color was seen but not assigned marginal value, and was instead categorized by group rather than individual.

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32

Antiquity

the idea that Africans were at the "forefront of human civilization"

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33

"Africans were not always under the heel but were in fact at the forefront of human civilization." (Gomez, 17)

key quote in Reversing Sail Chapter 1

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34

D.T. Niane

author of Sundiata

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35

key points in "Sundiata"

~ Sassouma, his father’s first wife, indirectly forced Sundiata and his family into exile ~ making allies from Ghana to Wagadou ~ woman from Mali found Sundiata’s family before his mother’s death and explained that Mali needed Sundiata’s help ~ using the help of Fran Kamara the nephew of Soumaoro, Sundiata discovered Soumaoro’s secrets from the wife he stole ~ decimated Sosso’s army as Sosso fled into the mountains, and Sundiata killed Sosso’s allies, fed the people of his friends, and regained control of Mali

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36

Audre Lorde

author of Age, Race, Class, and Sex: Women Redefining Difference

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37

key points in "Age, Race, Class and Sex: Women Redefining Difference"

~ impact of marginalization of women and other minoritized communities on their own groups and how it has led to voluntary isolation and dissociation between intersectional groups ~ a community’s reaction to oppression is burdening feelings of responsibility and isolation from other groups who share their struggles due to the emphasis of feelings of difference ~ create a social activism movement that isolates intersectional peoples within that group ~ White women often exclude the experiences of Black women when defining feminism, and Black women often “testify against themselves” because of their fear of lesbianism

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38

"We must root out internalized patterns of oppression of ourselves if we are to move beyond the most superficial aspects of social change." (Lorde, 115)

key quote in "Age, Race, Class, and Sex: Women Redefining Difference"

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39

Kimberly Tauches

author of "Transgendering"

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40

key points in "Transgendering"

~ explains the scientific background behind four central concepts: sex, gender, sexuality, and the act of “transgendering” ~ Gender is the socially constructed system and identity that is expected to be portrayed based on sex, and that there are (hypothetically) two exclusive genders: masculine and feminine ~ Society creates stigma around sexuality because it socially defines what is considered sexual/sexy and assumes everyone is heterosexual ~ transgender identity demonstrates how genders can be combined or fall out of the gender binary, but those identify with such often face interpersonal and institutional discrimination

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41

Tiffany Patterson and Robin Kelley

authors of "Unfinished Migrations"

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42

key points in "Unfinished Migrations"

~ extensive concept of “diasporic consciousness” and the essential aspects of diaspora ~ politically, it discusses African people who have been dispersed due to the slave trade; analytically, it enables these people to talk about those across geographical boundaries. ~ key aspects of diaspora are defined by the lack of sovereign boundaries, dispersal, home in hostland and its marginalization, and desire to return ~ preserved through music, dance, religion, and linguistics ~ these identities are quite separate and that the focus should not be on the quantities but rather on the qualities of these diasporas ~ diasporas are: ~ Socially constructed ~ Changing through processes of migration and movement ~ Directly ties to current understandings of race and gender and political topics ~ alienation of and appearance of superiority within identities as well

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43

lack of sovereign boundaries, dispersal, home in the hostland and its marginalization, desire to return

four key aspects of diaspora

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44

Anti-essentialism

idea that something has a loose set of defining attributes that aren't rigid but generalize a topic ~ persuades modern Black scholars to discuss hybridity in the diaspora (Patterson and Kelley, 35)

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45

Joanne Hyppolite

author of "Dyaspora"

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key points in "Dyaspora"

~ illustration of the contrasts between Hyppolite’s familial background and her assimilation into a White America ~ “dyaspora” as a connection and disconnection ~ Haiti in America as an extension of the home, a channel where cultural ideas and diasporic consciousness is formed even when away from the homeland ~ lack of acknowledgement of 1. Racism in America, as their Haitian family was unaware of Hyppolite’s struggles with assimilation and stereotypes 2. Haiti’s truth, as many of their White counterparts created these stereotypes to socially discriminate against Hyppolite and their family

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a connection and disconnection

In "Dyaspora", "dyaspora" is defined as...

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48

key quote in "Dyaspora"

"'In Haiti we never treated White people badly.'" (Hyppolite, 85)

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49

Beheroze Schroff

director of "Voices of the Sihdis"

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50

key points in "Voices of the Sihdis"

~ Heena’s ancestors came from Tanzania and rose to power in India by working as Hindu Maharajas, Africans who worked in royal courts and managed court households ~ identify as Sihdi, or Habashi— meaning they are knowledgeable of their African ancestry but still identify as India ~ they were able to respect the royal family and earned leisures and privileges ~ Their children, like many Sidis in India, were born in India and maintained African ancestry

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51

Kenneth Robbins, United Nations of Bangladesh

directors/speakers in "Afro-South Asia in the Global African Diaspora"

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52

key points in "Afro-South Asia in the Global African Diaspora"

~ The slave trade across the Indian Ocean lasted for a more extensive time— however, these slaves commonly served in domestic and military servitude ~ Silk Road, which resulted in a trade in intelligence, culture, philosophy and religion ~ Elite African scholars such as Bava Gor and Malik Ambar established sustainable initiatives like agri-trade in India, where they are recognized for their efforts ~ women who fought alongside African men in power ~ Africans are almost seen as the Indigenous Indians ~ communities of African descent are found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and other South Asian countries ~ efforts resulted in extension of intelligence and a “Pan-African diaspora”

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53

key points in Reversing Sail Chapter 4

~ The exploration of Africa as it relates to the transatlantic slave trade began with the desire for expansion ~ they stole many of their slaves from Iberia but eventually resources from this region became scarce ~ Italians especially became interested in the use of sugarcane and needed labor to farm it ~ labor was transported to Brazil, where 90% of African captives were taken ~ rise of mining and agriculture in Portuguese regions also led to the enslavement of Africans ~ “boating” and justification of slavery through race ~ Sexes were segregated, slaves mutilated and the New World was viewed as hell and Europeans as cannibals

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54

key points in Reversing Sail Chapter 5

~ enslaved peoples were brought to Brazil, Jamaica, Trinidad, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Cuba, the US, and more ~plantations in the Caribbean were governed by absentee ownership, where managers acted in place on the plantation owners on small lands with less than 100 slaves. ~Code Noir in Haiti and Siete Partidas in Cuba: however, it was up to regulation and slave owners how often these rules were implemented ~ Some countries saw some significant populations of mixed or free Africans, however many of them were still not granted the same rights as White counterparts and overseers ~ were asked to work in brutal heat for 16-18, sometimes 24 hours a day ~ Upon arrival they were “seasoned”, or painfully hazed for up to three years: up to ⅓ of enslaved Africans did not survive this period ~ Women were required to work even when pregnant, resulting in a rise in infant mortality rates and women mortality rates

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55

Hispaniola

Which territory had the first enslaved Africans?

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56

Brazil

Which territory had the largest amount of African captives?

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57

St. Dominique

Haiti was formerly known as...

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58

Code Noir: Haiti; Siete Partidas: Cuba

name of slave codes that attempted to grant some freedoms

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59

key points in Reversing Sail Chapter 6

~ Large scale revolts were common within plantation communities, whether organized or spontaneous, across Peru, Brazil, Hispaniola and the US ~ ranaway to the mountains, seashore, or to another place in the country were the enslaved was free, such as the North in the United States ~ Maroon communities, a safe haven for escapees in some inaccessible place. Many of these maroon communities often utilized the help of Native Americans and Indigenous peoples, forming anywhere from large families to republics ~ work slowdowns and everyday resistance, which included: “sassing massa”, mother resistance through infanticide, Africanization, and poisoning ~ antislavery societies or Back to Africa movements was implemented ~ emancipation was eventually ratified by the British, which prohibited new slaves to be imported in British-Caribbean territories ~ Brazil was the last territory to abolish slavery

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60

Slavery was pushed to continue the narrative that Africans were "intellectually and morally deficient" (Gomez, 135)

key quote in Reversing Sail Chapter 6

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61

problem-solving system of education

idea in Pedagogy of the Oppressed where students critique and discuss the information they are taught (student teacher relationship interchangeable)

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62

“Africa has no history and did not contribute to anything that mankind enjoyed”

Old World Provenance dispute by George Hegel

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63

Susan Guillory

example of Complexity of Race

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64

movement of winds (monsoons), sailboats

Contact between the Indian Ocean and African worlds were facilitated by...

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65

Muslim-Christian conflict, International commerce (maritime improvements), sugar, maritime progress

four main contributors to the Transatlantic trade

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66

social contract

created during the Renaissance, the idea that ordinary people were born with certain rights → governmental power should serve the people ~ contributed to ideas around abolition

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67

relative nature of freedom

idea that freedom did not mean the absence of slavery

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68

monogenesis

the theory that all humans descend from a single ancestor

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69

polygenesis

the theory that mankind derived from two creations: european/asian and native americans

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