DC Human Bio Exam #3

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<p>DNA</p>

DNA

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<p>DNA</p>
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<p>DNA</p>

DNA

The molecule inside cells that contains the genetic information responsible for the development and function of an organism.

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Histones

a type of protein found in chromosomes.

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<p>Centromere</p>
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<p>Centromere</p>

Centromere

the region where a cells spindle fibers attach.

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<p>Karyotype</p>
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<p>Karyotype</p>

Karyotype

an individuals complete set of chromosomes.

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Homologous Chromosomes

Two chromosome in a pair- normally one inherited from the mother and one from the father.

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Autosome

One of the numbered chromosomes that is not a sex chromosome, 22 pairs.

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Sex Chromosome

A type of chromosome involved in sex determination. Females= XX Males=XY

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Sister Chromatids

Either of the two identical chromatids that are formed by replication of a chromosome.

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Epigenetics

How your behaviors and environment can cause changes that affect the way your genes work.

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Interphase

A cell spends most of its time here and it grows, replicates its chromosomes, and prepares for cell division.

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Interphase (G1)

The cell makes a variety of proteins that are needed for DNA replication.

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Interphase (S)

All of the chromosomes are replicated.

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Interphase (G2)

The cell replenishes its energy stores and synthesizes proteins.

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Mitosis

A process where a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells.

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Prophase

The first stage of cell division, the chromatids condense and thicken to form distinct bodies.

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Metaphase

The second stage of cell division, the nucleus dissolves and the cell’s chromosomes condense and move together, aligning in the center of the cell.

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Anaphase

The third stage of cell division, the sister chromatids separate from each other and are pulled towards opposite ends of the cell.

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Telophase

The final stage of cell division, a nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes to separate the nuclear DNA from the cytoplasm.

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Cytokinesis

The process when one cell physically divides into two cells.

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Diploid Cell

Having two sets of chromosomes, sexually reproducing organisms

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Haploid Cells

The presence of a single set of chromosomes in an organism’s cells. ex. egg and sperm cells.

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Examples of somatic cells

muscle cells, blood cells, skin cells, and nerve cells.

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Sex cells

gametes, egg cells and sperm.

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Role of spindle fibers

to separate the chromosomes, attach to chromosomes during metaphase and pull the chromatids toward opposite poles during anaphase.

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Gamete

egg or sperm cell

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Fertilization

the union of two gametes, sperm and egg fuse to form a diploid zygote to initiate development.

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Zygote

Fertilized egg cell that results from the union of a female gamete with a male gamete.

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Embryo

an organism in the early stages of developement.

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Fetus

an unborn baby that develops and grows inside the uterus.

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Child

a person between birth and puberty, or between the developmental period of infancy and puberty.

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Adult

The period in the human lifespan in which full physical and intellectual maturity have been attained.

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Crossing over

The exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids that occurs during the development of egg and sperm cells.

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Independent Assortment

Genes do not influence each other with regard to the sorting of alleles into gametes.

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Meiosis 1

The number of cells is doubled but the number of chromosomes is not.

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Meiosis 2

The sister chromatids within the two daughter cells separate, forming four new haploid gametes.

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Prophase Mitosis

The process that separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells, chromatin condenses.

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Nondisjunction

Causes abnormal number of chromosomes, ex. down syndrome, trisomy of autosomes

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What happens in nondisjunction?

The separation fails to occur causing both sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes to be pulled to one pole of the cell.

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<p>Trisomy</p>
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<p>Trisomy</p>

Trisomy

The affected person has three copies of one of the chromosomes instead of two. ex. down syndrome, edward syndrome.

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Monosomy

A person is missing one chromosome in the pair. ex. baby born with only one X chromosome (monosomy X)

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Gene

The basic unit of heredity passed from parent to child, made up of sequences of DNA.

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Trait

A specific characteristic of an individual.

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Allele

The alternative form or versions of a gene.

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Dominant

When the allele of a gene effectively overrules the other (recessive) allele.

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Recessive

A trait that is expressed only when genotype is homozygous.

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Genotype

The genetic makeup of an organism.

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Phenotype

The observable characteristics in an individual resulting from the expression of genes.

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Homozygous

The presence of two identical alleles at a particular gene locus. homo=same

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Heterozygous

The presence of two different alleles at a particular gene locus.

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Law of Segregation

During the formation of gamete, each gene separates from each other so that each gamete carries only one allele for each gene.

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<p>Homozygous dominant</p>
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<p>Homozygous dominant</p>

Homozygous dominant

An organism with two dominant alleles for a trait.

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<p>Homozygous recessive</p>
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<p>Homozygous recessive</p>

Homozygous recessive

The genotype of an organism with two recessive alleles.

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Heterozygous

The presence of two different alleles at a particular gene locus.

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Carrier

A person who has one copy of a mutated diesease-causing gene but has no symptoms or mild symptoms.

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Complete Dominance

The effect of one allele in a heterozygous genotype completely masks the effect of the other.

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Sex-linked Inheritance

Characteristics that are influenced by genes carried on the sex chromosomes. ex. congenital night blindness, high blood pressure genes.

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Incomplete Dominance

A form of gene interaction in which both alleles of a gene at a locus are partially expressed, often resulting in an intermediate or different phenotype.

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Multiple Alleles

The alternative forms of the same gene so they influence the same trait. ex) ABO blood type.

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Codominance

Two alleles are expressed to an equal degree within an organism.

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Female Pedigree Shape

Circle

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Male Pedigree Shape

Square

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Affected Pedigree

Fully shaded

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Unaffected Pedigree

Not shaded

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<p>Pleiotropy</p>
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<p>Pleiotropy</p>

Pleiotropy

The expression of multiple traits by a single gene.

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Polygenic Inheritance

When one characteristic is controlled by two or more genes. ex) height, skin color, eye color, etc.

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Linked genes

When genes are located on the same chromosome and cannot segregate independently b/c they are inherited together.

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<p>Nucleotide</p>
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<p>Nucleotide</p>

Nucleotide

Organic molecule with a basic composition of a nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, and phosphate.

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4 types of nucleotides

Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine.

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<p>DNA Structure</p>
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<p>DNA Structure</p>

DNA Structure

Double Helix, two complementary strands of nucleotide held together by hydrogen bonds.

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Hydrogen Bonds

Interaction involving a hydrogen atom located between a pair of other atoms having a high affinity for electrons.

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Covalent Bonds

The sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Base-pairing rules

In DNA, Adenine with Thymine, Cytosine with Guanine. In RNA, Adenine pairs with Uracil.

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<p>Helicase</p>
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<p>Helicase</p>

Helicase

Breaks the hydrogen bonds and opens up the DNA strand.

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<p>DNA Polymerase</p>
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<p>DNA Polymerase</p>

DNA Polymerase

Links DNA nucleotides together to form the daughter strand during replication.

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RNA Polymerase

Builds mRNA

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<p>Ligase</p>
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<p>Ligase</p>

Ligase

Catalyzing the reaction of joining two large molecules by establishing a new chemical bond.

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<p>Semiconservative model of replication</p>
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<p>Semiconservative model of replication</p>

Semiconservative model of replication

After one round of replication, every new DNA double helix would be a hybrid that consisted of one strand of old DNA bound to one strand of newly synthesized DNA.

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Transcription

The process of making an RNA copy of a gene’s DNA sequence.

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Translation

A cell makes proteins using the genetic information carried in messenger RNA.

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Role of mRNA

To carry protein information from the DNA in a cell’s nucleus to the cells cytoplasm.

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Role of tRNA

Adaptor between the genetic instructions written in nucleic acid sequences and the protein products encoded in genes.

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Role of rRNA

Direct the catalytic steps of protein synthesis.

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Anticodon

A three-nucleotide sequence found on tRNA that binds to the corresponding mRNA sequence.

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Codon

A three-nucleotide or triplet sequence found on mRNA that codes for a certain amino acid during translation.

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