bio357 unit 1 exam

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Hooke

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Hooke

  • first to observe distinct units of living material, which he called "cells"

  • created the first publication of objects seen under a microscope

  • improved the design of compound microscope

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van Leeuwenhoek

  • first individual to observe single-celled microbes (discovered protists and bacteria)

  • made single lens microscopes

  • known as the "Father of Microbiology"

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Pasteur

  • discovered the fundamental chemical property of chirality

  • discovered that fermentation was caused by living yeast (single-celled fungus)

  • theory: transmission of germs causes disease

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Koch

  • devised the first scientific basis for determining that a specific microbe causes diseases

  • used anthrax to demonstrate the "chain of infection", or transmission of disease

  • determined the bacteria that causes tuberculosis

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Koch's postulates

  • microbe always present in diseased, absent in healthy

  • microbe can be grown in pure culture with no other microbes present

  • when the microbe is introduced into a healthy individual, the host shows the same disease

  • same microbe re-isolated from now-sick individual

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Ed Jenner

  • concept and execution of 1st vaccine

  • used cowpox vaccine to prevent smallpox

  • known as the "Father of Immunology"

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Fleming

  • discovered penicillin

  • discovered that microbes produce antibiotics

  • discovered lysozymes

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bacilli

rod-shaped

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cocci/staph

sphere

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spirochetes

spirals

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light field

light background, dark objects

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dark field

dark background, light objects

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phase scope

differences in refractive index reveal shape of organelles and outline of cell; patterns of light and dark

<p>differences in refractive index reveal shape of organelles and outline of cell; patterns of light and dark</p>
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light microscopes

maximum magnification: 1000x

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fluorescence

  • requires fluorophore to fluoresce

  • DAPI + chlorophyll stain

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TEM

  • cross-section

  • 20,000,000 - 50,000,000x mag.

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SEM

  • outside/surface of organism

  • 100,000x - 3,000,000x

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purpose of gram stains

  • shape

  • Gram + or -, which affects treatment

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archaea vs. bacteria

  • ether vs. ester links

  • different ribosome configuration

  • fatty acid monolayer in some archaea

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ester links

lipid link in bacteria and eukaryotes fatty acids

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ether links

lipid link in archaea fatty acids

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gram positive bacteria

  • thick cell wall

  • ↑ peptidoglycan

  • S layer

  • teichoic acids

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gram negative bacteria

  • thin cell wall

  • ↓ peptidoglycan

  • outer membrane (distinct from cell membrane); contains porin; i.e. 2 membranes

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cell wall

everything outside cell membrane + gives structure to cell

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cell membrane

  • phospholipid bilayer

  • contains integral and peripheral proteins and carbohydrates

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important components of cell wall

  • peptidoglycan

  • porous nature

  • flexibility

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eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes

  • prokaryotes do not undergo mitosis or meiosis

  • prokaryote cell wall = peptidoglycan; plants = cellulose; fungi: chitin

  • structurally different ribosomes

  • eukaryotes: membrane bound organelles

  • prokaryotes: coupled transcription/translation

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functions of the cell membrane

  • permeability barrier

  • structural support for protein

  • detection of environmental signals

  • secretion + communication

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passive transport

  • transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion

  • does not require energy

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active transport

  • transport of a substance across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient

  • requires energy

  • uses protein

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proton gradient

  • also called proton motive force

  • changes pH in cell

  • don't go through membrane easily (polar → need protein)

  • move nutrients into the cell

  • drive motors that rotate flagella

  • drive synthesis of ATP

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periplasm

fluid; space between the cell membrane + cell wall; external to the cell

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capsule

external to cell wall, usually thick + gooey

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glycocalyx

capsule of mycobacterium

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peritrichous

flagella randomly spread around

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lophotrichous

  • aka amphitrichous

  • tuft of flagella at one or both ends

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monotrichous

single flagellum

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coupled transcription/translation

  • begin translation before transcription is 100% complete

  • ↑ speed

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antiport

the actively transported molecule moves in the direction opposite that of the driving ion

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symport

the two molecules travel in the same direction

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more sterols

↑ rigid cell membrane (less fluid)

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less sterols

↓ rigid cell membrane (more fluid)

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chemotaxis

  • movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus

  • move towards attractants (nutrients)

  • move away from repellents (poison)

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minimal defined media

know exactly what's in the media, contains only nutrients essential for growth of certain microbe

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complex media

nutrient rich media with poorly defined components

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differential media

can distinguish between various bacteria on the basis of metabolic differences

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selective media

allows growth of certain species/strains of organisms but not others

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autotrophy

make the 4 macromolecules

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heterotrophy

needs pre-formed 4-macros

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photoautotrophy

use light energy → make macros

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chemoautotroph

uses inorganic compounds as e- donors (ex. hydrogen, iron, etc.)

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chemoheterotroph

  • aka chemoorganotroph

  • uses organic compounds as e- donors

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photoheterotrophy

light energy makes organic compounds donate e-

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assimilation

  • nitrogen → ammonium

  • nitrogen fixers: huge energy sink; do not get energy from this

  • make nitrogen part of oneself

<ul><li><p>nitrogen → ammonium</p></li><li><p>nitrogen fixers: huge energy sink; do not get energy from this</p></li><li><p>make nitrogen part of oneself</p></li></ul>
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dissimilation

  • phase of nitrogen cycle where energy is being made

  • ammonium → nitrate → nitrite

<ul><li><p>phase of nitrogen cycle where energy is being made</p></li><li><p>ammonium → nitrate → nitrite</p></li></ul>
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coupled transport

  • antiport and symport

  • doesn't need to use ATP directly

  • can move molecules against conc. gradient not via active transport

  • use free energy released as ion moves down its concentration gradient to drive the transport of a second molecule against its concentration gradient

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endocytosis

uptake particles

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pinocytosis

uptake of a solution (dissolved substances)

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exocytosis

  • out of cell

  • excrete waste, enzymes, etc.

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viable

  • alive -metabolically active

  • can divide if environment conditions are favorable

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lag phase

  • not dividing

  • acclimating to new environment, getting ready to divide

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log phase

doubling

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stationary phase

rate of death = rate of division (cells dying @ same rate they're dividing)

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death phase

dying faster than dividing

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batch (closed system)

limited resources (ex. test tube, flask)

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chemostat (open system)

keep providing nutrients and removing waste

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biofilm

  • a community of microbes growing on a solid surface

  • can be pure culture or mix

  • quorum sensing: cell to cell communication

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heterocyst

specialized cell that does nitrogen fixation

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cyanobacteria

  • prokaryotic

  • can do both nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis

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psychrophile

< 15°C

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mesophile

15-45°C

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thermophile

50-80°C

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hyperthermophile

80°C

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barotolerant

10-495 ATM (can survive at 495, not growing)

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barophile

growing >380 ATM

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normal salt

0.1-1M NaCl (0.2%-5%)

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halophile

2M NaCl (10-20%)

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acidophile

< pH 5

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neutrophile

pH 5-8

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alkaliphile

pH 9

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strict aerobe

  • must use oxygen in respiration and deal with ROS (free radicals)

  • allowing formation of H+ gradient → allow formation of ATP

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facultative anaerobes

either ferment (does not use oxygen) or use oxygen (respiration)

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aerotolerant anaerobes

  • ferment only

  • don't use oxygen but can deal with ROS

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microaerophile

  • only deal with low levels of oxygen

  • minimal anti-ROS

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