Human Communications Final Exam

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Social relationships

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Psychology

70 Terms

1

Social relationships

replaceable relationships that tend to follow broad social scripts and rules and in which participants tend to assume conventional social roles in relation to one another. contrasts with personal relationships

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2

Commitment

the decision to remain in a relationship. one of three dimensions of enduring romantic relationships, commitment has more influence on relationship continuity than does love alone. an advanced stage in the process of escalation in romantic relationships

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3

Contexts and relationships

(To be added)

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4

Monroe's Motivated Sequence

  • The attention step focuses listeners’ attention on the topic with a strong opening (“Imagine a mother with three young children and no home to live in”).

  • The need step shows that a real and serious problem exists (“Poverty makes it impossible for some people to afford homes”).

  • The satisfaction step is when a speaker recommends a solution to the problem described (“Habitat for Humanity was founded to assist people in build-ing homes for themselves”).

  • The visualization step intensifies listeners’ commitment to the solution by helping them imagine the results that the recommended solution would achieve (“Here is a photo of Vivian Murphy standing in front of the home that she and 10 other students built in 2013”).

  • In the action step the speaker appeals to listeners to take concrete action to realize the recommended solution (“I urge you to call Habitat today and volun-teer to help another Vivian have a home”)

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5

Relationship dialectics

the tensions between opposing forces or tendencies that are normal parts of all relationships. autonomy/connection;novelty/predictability, and openness/closedness

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6

Autonomy / Connection

one of the three relationship dialectics; the tension between the need for personal autonomy, or independence, and connection, or intimacy.

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7

Novelty / Predictability

one of the three relationship dialectics; the tension between the desire for spontaneous new experiences, and the desire for routines and familiar experiences.

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8

Openness / Closedness

one of the three relationship dialectics; the tension between the desire to share private thoughts, feelings, and experiences with intimates and the desire to preserve personal privacy

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9

Neutralization

balancing or finding a compromise between two dialectical poles

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10

Turning point

particular experiences and events that cause relations to become more or less intimate

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11

Coping

the couple struggles with external pressures, including families and friends' disapproval, and develops strategies to protest their relationships from external damage

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12

Proximity

physical nearness, influences initial attraction

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13

Similarity

"birds of a feather flock together" more true than "opposites attract"

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14

Mania Love

an unsettling stage of love marked by emotional extremes. These lovers often are insecure about their value and their partners commitment

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15

Eros Love

a style of loving that is intense, passionate, ans fast moving. not confined to sexual passion, this may be expressed in spiritual, intellectual, or emotional ways.

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Storge Love

a comfortable, a "best friends" kind of love that grows gradually to create a stable, even-keeled companionship

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17

Ludus Love

a playful, sometime manipulative style of loving. for these lovers, love is a challenge, a puzzle, a game to be relished but not to lead to commitment.

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18

Agape Love

a selfless kind of love in which a beloved's happiness is more important than one's own. These lovers are generous, unselfish, and devoted.

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19

Pragma Love

a pragmatic and goal oriented style of loving. these lovers rely on reason and practical considerations when initially selecting people to love

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20

Definition of relationship

(To be added)

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21

Navigating

broad stage of romantic relationships. before forming romantic relationships, each of us has figured out some things about who we are and what qualities we look for in romantic partners

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22

Managing distances in relationships

Cyclic alteration occurs when partners cycle between dialectical poles to favor each pole alternately. couples involved in long distance relationships often spend weekends in close contact and don't see each other during the week.

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23

Relationship Culture

a private world of rules, understandings and patterns of acting and interpreting that partners create to give meaning to their relationship; the nucleus of intimacy.

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24

Equity Theory

the theory that people are happier and more satisfied with equitable relationships than inequitable ones. In equitable relationships, partners perceive the benefits and costs of the relationships as about equal for each of them.

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25

Teams

a special kind of group characterized by a different and coplementary resources of members and by a strong sense of collective identity. all of these are groups but not all groups are these.

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26

Groups

More than two people who interact over common goals. a team is a type of this

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27

Project Team

consist of people who have expertise related to different faucets if a project and who combine their knowledge and skills to accomplish a common goal.

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28

Brainstorming Group

when idea generation is the goal, these groups are appropriate. the goal of brainstorming is to come up with as many ideas as possible. because criticism tends to stifle creativity, these group bar criticism and encourage imaginative, even wild thinking.

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29

Advisory Group

this group allow decision makers to benefit from other experts' information and advise pertinent to developing effective policies and making informed decisions

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30

Quality improvement team

a group in a which people from different departments or areas in an organization collaborate to solve problems, meet needs, or increase the quality of work life

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31

Limitation of groups

Time needed for the group process, potential to suppress individuals or encourage conformity, and social loafing which exists when members of a group exert less effort than they would if they worked alone

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Advantages of groups

greater resources, more thorough thought like synergy (a special kind of vitality that enhances the energies, talents, and strengths of members), heightened creativity and enhanced commitment to decisions

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Cohesion

closeness or feeling of esprit de corps among a group

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34

Social climbing

the attempt to increase personal status in a group by winning the approval of high status members

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35

Power

the ability to influence others; a feature of small groups that affects participation

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36

Power over

the ability to help or harm others. this usually is communicated in ways that highlight the status and influence the person exerting power

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37

Power to

the ability to empower others to reach their goals. people who use power to help others generally do not highlight their own status and influence

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38

Group Norms

an informal rule that guides how members of a culture or group think, feel, and act. This defines what is normal or appropriate in various situations.

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39

Procedural communication

one of three constructive ways of participating in group decision making; orders ideas and coordinates contributions of members

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40

Task communication

one of three constructive ways of participating in group decision making; focuses on giving and analyzing information and ideas

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41

Climate communication

one of three constructive ways of participating in group decision making; the creating and sustaining of an open, engaged atmosphere for discussion

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42

Key features of organizational culture

structure, communication network, and links to external environment

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43

Structure

organize relationships among members of an organization (roles, rules, polices, and communication networks). Predictability about roles, procedures and expectations.

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44

Communication network

the links among embers of an organization. It can be formal or informal.

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45

Links to external environment

not just the inside that matters, we must look outside to see how organizations are related and affected by its contexts

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Organizational Culture

values, behaviors, practices, and forms of communication that are shared by the members of an organization and that reflect an organizations identity

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47

Hierarchical Language

many organizations and professions have vocabularies that designate status. unequal terms of address also communicate rank (sir, captain, Mr., Mrs., Ma'am)

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48

Masculine language

organizations have developed and continue to use language reflecting men's traditional interests, and experiences (be a team player, touch down, etc.) Language that reflects traditionally masculine experiences and interests can bind men together in a community in which some women may feel unwelcome or uncomfortable

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49

Stories

we tell stories to create meaning in our lives, and that includes the lives we live in organizations. The stories we tell do some real work in establishing and sustaining organizational cultures.

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50

Coporate stories

conveys the values, style and history of an organization. one important function of them is to socialize new members into the culture of an organization

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51

Personal Story

Tell stories about themselves. they are account that announce how people see themselves and how they want to be seen by others

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52

Collegial story

offers accounts of other members of the organization. They're told by coworkers who fore warn us about what to expect from whom. whether positive or negative these stories assort identities for others in an organization. Part of an informal network that teaches new members of an organization what to expect from other members of the organization.

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53

Features of public communication

entertain, inform, and persuade

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54

Entertainment speeches

intended to amuse, interest, and engage listeners

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55

Informative speeches

intended to increase listeners' understanding, awareness, or knowledge of some topic

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56

Persuasive speeches

intended to change listeners attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors or to motivate listeners to action.

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57

Speaking and entertainment

(To be added)

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58

Derived credibility

the expertise and trustworthiness attribute to a speaker by listeners as a result of how the speaker communicates during a presentation

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59

Terminal credibility

the cumulative expertise and trustworthiness listeners attribute to a speaker as a result of initial and derived credibility. may be greater or less than initial credibility depending on how effective a speaker has communicated

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60

High initial credibility

the expertise and trustworthiness listeners attribute to a speaker before a presentation begins. This is based on the speakers titles, positions, experiences, or achievements that are known to the listeners before they hear the speech

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61

Thesis statement

the main idea of an entire speech; should capture the key message in a concise sentence that listeners can remember easily

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62

Planning for public speeches

(To be added)

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63

Attention getting devices Introduction

(To bed added)

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64

Organizational patterns

Chronological/Time, Spatial, Topical/Classification, Wave, Comparative pattern

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65

Chronological/Time Pattern

organize ideas chronologically. they emphasize progression, sequences, or development

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66

Spatial Pattern

organize ideas according to physical relationships. they are useful in explaining layouts, geographical relationships, or connections between parts of a system.

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67

Topical/Classification Pattern

order speech content into categories or areas. they are useful in speeches in which topics break down into two or three areas that aren't related temporally, spatially, or otherwise.

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68

Wave Patterns

features repetitions, each one repeats a main theme with variations or extensions

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69

Comparative patterns

compare two or more phenomena. they demonstrate similarities or differences between phenomena

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70

Transition Step

A word, phrase, or sentence that connects ideas and main points in a speech so that listeners can follow a speaker

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