Unit 4 Vocabulary (Ch 8-9)

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Administrative Discretion

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46 Terms

1

Administrative Discretion

Authority given by Congress to the Federal Bureaucracy to use reasonable judgment in implementing the laws

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2

Bureaucracy

a form of organization that operates through impersonal, uniform rules and procedures

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3

Bureaucrat

a career government employee

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4

cabinet

advisory council for the president consisting of the heads of the executive departments, the vice president, and a few other officials selected by the president

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5

Central Clearance

Review of all executive branch testimony, reports, an draft legislation by the Office of Management and Budget to ensure that each communication to Congress is in accordance with the president’s program

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6

Chief of Staff

The head of the White House staff

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7

Congressional-executive agreement

a formal agreement between a US president and the leaders of other nations that acquires approval by both houses of Congress

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8

Cycle of Decreasing Influence

the tendency of presidents to lose support overtime

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9

Cycle of Increasing Effectiveness

The tendency of presidents to learn more about doing their jobs over time

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10

Department

Usually the largest organization in government with the largest mission; also the highest rank in the Federal hierarchy

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11

Entitlement Programs

programs such as unemployment insurance, disability relief, or disability payments that provide benefits to all eligible citizens

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12

executive agreement

a formal agreement between the US president and the leaders of other nations that does not require Senate approval

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13

Executive Office of the President

the cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his responsibilities. Currently the office includes the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisors, and several other units

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14

executive orders

formal orders issued by the president to direct action by the Federal bureaucracy

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15

Executive privilege

the right to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to National Security

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16

Federal Register

An official document, published every weekday, which lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies

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17

Government corporation

a government agency that operates like a business corporation created to secure greater freedom of action and flexibility for a particular program

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18

Hatch Act

Federal statue barring Federal employees from active participation in certain kinds of politics and protecting them from being fired on partisan grounds

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19

Impeachment

formal accusation against a president or other public official, the first step in removal from office

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20

implementation

the process of putting a law into practice through bureaucratic rules of spending

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21

Impoundment

a decision by the president not to spend mone appropriated by Congress, now prohibited under Federal Law

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22

Impoundment

Presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds that Congress authorized and appropriated

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23

independent agency

a government entity that is independent of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches

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24

Independent regulatory commission

a government agency or commission with regulatory power whose independence is protected by Congress

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25

Indexing

Providing automatic increases to compensate for inflation

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26

inherent powers

powers that grow out of the very existence of governement

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27

Line item veto

Presidential power to strike, or remove, specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court

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28

Mandate

a president’s claim of broad public support

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29

Merit System

a system of public employment in which selection and promotion depend on demonstrated performance rather than political patronage

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30

Office of Management and Budget (OMB)

Presidential staff that serves as a clearinghouse for budgetary requests and management improvements for government agencies

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31

Office of Personnel Management (OPM)

agency that administers civil service laws, rules, and regulations

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32

oversight

legislative or executive review of a particular government program or organization. Can be in response to a crisis of some kind kind or part of routine review

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33

Parliament System

a system of government in which the legislative selects the prime minister or president

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34

Patronage

The dispensing of government jobs to persons who belong to the winning political party

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35

pocket veto

a formal decision to reject a bill passed by Congress after it adjourns - if Congress adjourns during the ten days that the president is allowed in order to sign or veto law, the president can reject the law by taking no action at all

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36

presidential ticket

the joint listing of the presidential and vice presidential candidates on the same ballot required by the 12th Amendment

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37

rally point

a rising public approval of the president that follows a crisis as Americans “rally ‘round the flag” and the chief executive

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38

regulations

the formal instructions that the government issues for implementing laws

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39

Rule-making process

the formal process by making regulations

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40

Senior Executive Service

Established by Congress in 1978 as a flexible, mobile corps of senior career executives who worked closely with presidential appointees to manage government

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41

Spoils System

a system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends

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42

State of the Union Address

the president’s annual statement to Congress and the nation

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43

Take care clause

the constitutional requirement (in Article II, Section 3) that presidents take care that the laws are faithfully executed, even if they disagree with the purpose of those laws

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44

Treaty

a formal, public agreement between the United States and one or more nations that must be approved by two thirds of the Senate

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45

Uncontrollable Spending

the portion of the Federal budget that is spent on programs, such as Social Security, that the president and Congress are unwilling to cut

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46

Veto

A formal decision to reject the bill passed by Congress

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