CEE 2. Pcol (Autonomics)

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central nervous system

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146 Terms

1

central nervous system

command center of the body

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voluntary

The somatic nervous system is responsible for ___ control

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involuntary

The autonomic nervous system regulates ___ functions of the body

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one-neuron

The somatic nervous system typically involves a ___ system, meaning that the motor neurons directly innervate the target skeletal muscles

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two-neuron system

The autonomic nervous system is a ___ system

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preganglionic, postganglionic

The autonomic nervous system consists of _____ and _____.

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cranial nerves and the sacral region of the spinal cord

ORIGIN: parasympathetic

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thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord

ORIGIN: sympathetic

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neurotransmitter

Neurons can be classified based on the ___ they use or produce to transmit signals to other neurons or target cells

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short, long

SYMPATHETIC: ___ preganglionic and ___ postganglionic (length)

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long, short

PARASYMPATHETIC: ___ preganglionic and ___ postganglionic (length)

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Near the Spinal Cord

SYMPATHETIC: Location of the Ganglion

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Near the effector / target organs

PARASYMPATHETIC: Location of the Ganglion

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Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine

SYMPATHETIC: ___ preganglionic and ___ postganglionic (neurotransmitter)

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Acetylcholine, Acetylcholine

PARASYMPATHETIC: ___ preganglionic and ___ postganglionic (neurotransmitter)

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Nicotinic-Neural

SYMPA- & PARASYMPA- THETIC: receptors (Ganglion)

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Adrenergic (Alpha, Beta, Dopamine)

SYMPATHETIC: receptors (ganglion)

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Cholinergic (Muscarinic, Nicotinic)

PARASYMPATHETIC: receptors (ganglion)

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Dopamine

simplest catecholamine

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neuromuscular junction

___ is a specialized synapse where a motor neuron communicates with a skeletal muscle fiber

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synaptic cleft

neuromuscular cleft aka “___“

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neuromuscular cleft

is the small gap or space between the presynaptic terminal of the motor neuron and the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber

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first functional group

PRINCIPLE: count carbon from the ___

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hydroxylation

what reaction happens in the conversion of Tyrosine to Dopa?

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Decarboxylation

what reaction is happening during Dopa to Dopamine?

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Alpha 1

What receptor is responsible for vasoconstriction in sympathetic nervous system?

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cell-eating

exocytosis aka “___”

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faster

exocytosis is (slower/faster) than endocytosis

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large

exocytosis is used in (small/large) molecules, such as hormone

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exocytosis

PROCESS: once action potential reaches pre-synaptic neuron, it triggers the opening of calcium channels, thus increasing the intracellular calcium in the body, triggering the release of NE

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pre-synaptic cleft, post-synaptic receptor, post-synaptic neuron

PROCESS: exocytosis - released in the ____ where it can bind to the ____ found in the ____

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intracellular calcium

increase in ___ triggers exocytosis

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cocaine, tricyclic anti-depressant

NE reuptake is inhibited by ___

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  1. Synthesis

  2. Storage

  3. Release

  4. Termination

Biosynthetic Pathway of NE

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the entry of Tyrosine in the presynaptic neuron

PROCESS: Norepinephrine synthesis starts with ___

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sodium tyrosine symporter

PROCESS: Norepinephrine synthesis is achieved through the use of ___

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tyrosine hydroxylase

PROCESS: Once Tyrosine is inside the pre-synaptic neuron, it is acted upon by ___

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blue cheese, wine

tyramine is contraindicated with the foods __ and __

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metyrosine

tyrosine hydroxylase is inhibited by

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rate-limiting

tyrosine hydroxylase is the ___ step in NE synthesis

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hypertension

Cocaine side-effect is ___ because of the excess NE, triggering adrenal receptors

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skin necrosis

cocaine also causes

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Reserpine

PROCESS: NE storage is inhibited by

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Rauwolfia serpentina

Reserpine plant source

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  • Bretylium

  • Guanethidine

PROCESS: NE release is inhibited by

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  1. diffusion to other parts

  2. reuptake through the use of NE transporter

PROCESS: NE termination (2 ways)

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dopamine beta-hydroxylase

what converts DA to NE?

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phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase

what enzyme catalyzes NE to EP?

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adrenal medulla

___ is responsible for the production and release of epinephrine

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adrenal glands

The adrenal medulla, which is the inner part of the ___ located on top of the kidneys

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crescent/triangular

shape of adrenal medulla

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bark, outer layer

cortex from adrenal cortex means “” or “

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adrenal cortex

composed of three distinct layers or zones, and each layer produces different hormones

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  1. Zona glomerulosa

  2. Zona fasciculata

  3. Zona reticularis

what are the hormones in the adrenal cortex?

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  1. Aldosterone

  2. Cortisol

  3. Sex hormones

roles of hormones in sodium balance

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zona glomerulosa

Aldosterone is a hormone primarily produced in the ___ of the adrenal cortex

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zona fasciculata

Cortisol (corticosteroid) is produced in the ___ of the adrenal cortex

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zona reticularis

Sex hormones (androgens) is produced in the ___ of the adrenal cortex

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hemicholinum

PARASYMPATHETIC: synthesis (-)

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vesamicol

PARASYMPATHETIC: storage (-)

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botulinum toxin

PARASYMPATHETIC: release (-)

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organophosphates, carbamates

PARASYMPATHETIC: termination

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metyrosine

SYMPATHETIC: synthesis (-)

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reserpine

SYMPATHETIC: storage (-)

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guanidine, bretylium

SYMPATHETIC: release (-)

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amphetamine, tyrosine

SYMPATHETIC: release (+)

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TCA, cocaine, MAOi, COMTi

SYMPATHETIC: termination

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Pheochromocytoma

a rare neuroendocrine tumor that usually arises from too much adrenaline

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increase in VMA urine

Pheochromocytoma = increase in EPI = ___

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Vasoconstrictors and Nasal Decongestants

alpha 1 - Agonists as ___ and ___

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Antagonists

alpha 1 - ___ for Treatment of Hypertension

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Agonists

alpha 2 - ___ for Treatment of Hypertension

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Hypertension, Angina, Cardiac Arrhythmias

beta 1 - Blockers for Treatment of ___, ___, and Certain ___

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Asthma, Premature Labor

beta 2 - Agonists for Treatment of ___ and ___

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-zosin

many alpha 1 antagonist ends in “___”

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Methyldopa

gestational hypertension is managed by ___

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chlonidine

DOC for emergency low blood pressure

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effector tissues: smooth muscles, glands

RECEPTOR LOCATION of alpha-1

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nerve endings, some smooth muscle

RECEPTOR LOCATION of alpha-2

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cardiac muscle, juxtaglomerular apparatus

RECEPTOR LOCATION of beta-1

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smooth muscle, liver, heart

RECEPTOR LOCATION of beta-2

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adipose cells, bladder

RECEPTOR LOCATION of beta-3

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tachycardia

chromotropy (rate) leads to ___

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bradychardia

enotropy (force) leads to ___

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beta

4’ OH is more important for ___ activity

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alpha

3’ OH is more important for ___ activity

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3’ 4’ diOH (near)

___ for both alpha and beta agonist activity is metabolized by COMT

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poor solubility, short DOA

3’ 4’ diOH (near) leads to ___

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3’ 5’ diOH (far)

(decreased) degradation by COMT

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increased absorption, oral activity, DOA

3’ 5’ diOH (far) leads to ___

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91
  • increase beta activity

  • decrease alpha activity

increasing the size of R1 will ___ & ___

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92

R2 substitution on C2

small alkyl groups tolerated

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Isoxsuprine

tocolytic drug (beta-2 receptor) for preventing pre-term contraction

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-olol

beta-1 (cardioselective beta blockers) ends in “___” except N…

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chicken feet

off-paper: tertiary butyl looks like

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MAO

R1 is mainly for ___

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COMT

R2 is mainly for ___

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  1. t-butyl

  2. 3’ and 5’ diOH

  3. 3’ CH2OH

↑ beta activity (manifestations)

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99

Epinephrine

Drug for allergy

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bronchodilation (beta-2 adrenergic), vasoconstriction (alpha-1 adrenergic receptor)

PRINCIPLE: why Epinephrine for allergy?

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