BJU Life Science Chapter 4

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Gregor Mendel

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Biology

7th

21 Terms

1

Gregor Mendel

Father of genetics

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2

traits

Characteristics that are inherited

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3

purebred

An organism that always produces offspring with the same traits as the parent.

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4

hybrid

An organism that has two different alleles for a trait

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5

dominant trait

a genetic factor that blocks another genetic factor

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6

recessive trait

a genetic factor that is blocked by the presence of a dominant factor

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7

simple dominance

the cross of two genes in which one is dominant over recessive

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8

heredity

Passing of traits from parents to offspring

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9

allele

Different forms of a gene

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10

Punnett Square

A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross

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11

genotype

genetic makeup of an organism. The letters that symbolize an organism's alleles for a specific gene. Ex. Bb, BB, bb

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12

Phenotype

An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits. Determined by the genotype.

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13

incomplete dominance

A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.

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14

Codominance

A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive. Both alleles are seen in the offspring.

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15

genetic drift

random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations

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16

character

A characteristic of a species such as size or shape.

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17

Adaptation

An inherited trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce

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18

trait

A form of a character such as tall or short.

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19

polygenic inheritance

a pattern of inheritance that occurs when two or more genes interact to control a single character

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20

genetic drift

A natural process in which the ratio of alleles in the population changes randomly over time.

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21

natural selection

the process through which organisms with certain adaptations survive to pass on their traits to a greater number of offspring than other organisms do.

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