AP Psych Quiz 1 (Research Methods and Perspectives)

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survey method (Definition)

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27 Terms

1

survey method (Definition)

series of questions to have humans respond to gather information

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2

survey method (Advantages)

  1. easier to get large group of data

  2. cheap and efficient

  3. data is easy to interpret

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3

survey method (disadvantages)

  1. Only surface level research

  2. "self report"; cannot guarantee accuracy in answers

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4

naturalistic observation (definition)

not interfering just observation with no manipulation of environment

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5

naturalistic observation (advantages)

  1. authenticity

  2. easy, cost efficient

  3. practical

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6

naturalistic observation (disadvantages)

  1. presence of observer can cause study subject to alter behavior

  2. possibility of ethical conflict

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7

case study (definition)

in depth study of one or more people in an unusual scenario

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8

case study (advantages)

  1. in-depth due to focused study

  2. allows studying in a unique way that is difficult or possibly unethical to recreate

  3. can lead to further studies to due discoveries

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9

case study (disadvantages)

  1. cannot apply broadly

  2. expensive, time consuming

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10

experiment (definition)

controlled study to find the answer to a specific question/ prove a cause and effect relationship

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experiment (advantages)

  1. high level of control

  2. only method to show a definitive cause and effect relationship

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12

experiment (disadvantages)

  1. may not translate well to real "uncontrolled" world

  2. participant size will be small

  3. expensive, time consuming

  4. to follow labor laws, experimenters cannot continue experiment past labor laws human abilities even if needed for the experiment

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13

nature vs. nurture

longstanding controversy over the contributions that genes and experience add to traits and behavior

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14

functionalism

how mental and behavioral processes function

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15

structuralism

"structure of the mind" expressing your own perspective and what you know about yourself (bias)

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16

emerisism

view that knowledge originates in experience

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experimental psychology

the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method psychologist: Mary Calkins

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18

behaviorism

the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes psychologists: John B. Watson, B.F Skinner

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19

humansitic psychology

a historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people psychologists: Carl Rodgers, Abraham Maslow

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cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)- understanding mental process

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psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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22

3 main levels of analysis

biological, psychological, social-cultural

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biopsychosocial approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

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biological influences

  1. natural selection of adaptive traits

  2. genetic predispositions responding to environment

  3. brain mechanisms

  4. hormonal influences

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25

psychological influences

  1. learned fears and other learned expectations

  2. emotional responses

  3. cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations

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social-cultural influences

  1. presence of others

  2. cultural, societal, and family expectations

  3. peer and other group influences

  4. compelling models (such as in the media)

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psychodynamic

the role of the unconscious Psychologists: Freud

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