Honors Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1

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61 Terms
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anatomy

structure; to cut apart; parts of the body and their arrangement

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physiology

function; study of the nature of the body

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when you loose the structure of an object

you loose the function of it

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regional anatomy

concerned with a body area

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foot, arm, etc.

examples of regional anatomy

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system anatomy

concerned with one system

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skeletal, nervous

examples of system anatomy

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surface anatomy

structures that are visible or palpable on the skin

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cytology

the study of cells

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cyto

cells

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histology

study of tissues

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change

through life stages, development needs

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embryology

in utero development

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hierarchical organization

chemical-cellular-tissue-organ-organ system

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ecm

extra cellular matrix

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8 necessary life functions

maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth

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does not equal

growth----development

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maintaining boundaries

cell membranes and the skin provide a buffer to the outside world

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movement

permitted by muscles

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inside movement

cardiac ( heart contractions show beating of heart)

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outside movement

skeletal muscle contractility

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responsiveness

maintains homeostasis

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internal responsiveness

adjust blood pressure, respiration levels, heart rate, etc.

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external responsiveness

sweat to regulate body temperature

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Digestion

breakdown and absorption of nutrients

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metabolism

all chemical reactions

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catabolism

tearing down

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anabolism

building up

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excretion

output waste from metabolism and digestion

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urea

urination (excretion of proteins), part of urinary system, produced by kidneys

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CO2

exhalation, part of respiratory system

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feces

defecation (excretion of unabsorbed foods), digestive system

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small-scale reproduction

cell division for growth and repair

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large-scale reproduction

production of offspring to continue species

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small-scale growth

increase size of body part of organism

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large-scale growth

increase number of cells

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Integumentary system parts

hair, nails, skin, sweat and oil glands

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Integumentary system jobs

  1. protects deep tissues from injury/infection 2)synthesizes Vitamin D

  2. receives general pain

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Skeletal System parts

joints, bones

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skeletal system jobs

  1. protect and support body organs

  2. assist muscular system with movement

  3. forms blood cells in marrow

  4. stores minerals like calcium in bones

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muscular system parts

skeletal muscles

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muscular system jobs

  1. movement

  2. posture

  3. body language

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nervous system parts

brain, nerves, spinal cord, support tissues

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nervous system jobs

  1. responds to changes internal or external by activating muscles or glands

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endocrine system parts

thyroid gland, pineal glad, pituitary gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries/testes

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endocrine system jobs

excretes hormones to regulate growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by the body cells

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cardiovascular/circulatory system parts

heart, blood vessels

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types of blood vessels

arteries (RBC), veins (WBC), capillaries (platelets)

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cardiovascular/circulatory system jobs

  1. transport blood

  2. pump blood to move oxygen, waste, nutrients, etc.

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lymphatic system parts

spleen, thymus, red bone marrow, lymph nodes, thoracic duct, lymphatic vessels, white blood cells (T and B cells)

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lymphatic system jobs

  1. returns filtered blood

  2. disposes of waste and old red blood cells

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respiratory system parts

nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, bronchus, trachea, lung

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respiratory system jobs

  1. breathing

  2. communication

  3. supply oxygen, remove carbon dioxide

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digestive system parts

oral cavity, esophagus, liver, small intestine, large intestine, stomach, rectum, anus

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digestive system jobs

  1. mechanically and chemically breaks down food for absorption

  2. elimination of indigestible food as feces

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urinary system parts

kidney, ureter. urinary bladder, urethra

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urinary system jobs

  1. eliminates nitrogenous waste

  2. regulates water, electrolytes, and pH of blood

  3. excretes extra acid from blood

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male reproductive system parts

prostate, penis, testes, scrotum, ductus defrens

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male reproductive system jobs

  1. creation of offspring

  2. make and deliver sperm

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female reproductive system parts

mammary glands, ovary, uterus, vagina, uterine tube

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female reproductive system jobs

  1. create offspring

  2. produce eggs

  3. develop organism "in utero"

  4. provide nutrition for offspring postpartum

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