Education 52 Key Terms

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language-as-problem orientation

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language-as-problem orientation

the view that being bilingual (especially unbalanced) is a problem that needs a solution. Even extends to speaking a non standardized version of a language.

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heteroglossic perspective of bilingualism

bilingualism as the norm, individual languages interconnect with each other, they are a part of the same linguistic repertoire (not two monolinguals in one common with the monolingual view of bilingualism).

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dynamic bilingualism

a bilingual uses their two languages (or more...) to accomplish task in the classroom.

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multicompetence view of bilingualism

bilinguals use their systems in different ways and they influence each other, two separate systems instead of one and bilinguals can grab from both sets.

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global language proficiency

the abilities the person has in the system across different modalities (listening, reading, writing) and you can quantify to test these abilities.

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communicative competence

the ability to be flexible, knowing when and how to use the language depending on the setting and the interlocutor (person whom you are speaking to).

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speech community

a community of people who share a certain language variation.

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receptive bilingualism

is able to understand a second language but not speak it.

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emergent bilingualism

the process of learning two languages in addition to the home language.

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simultaneous bilingualism

learning two languages through exposure from birth and early stages of childhood.

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sequential bilingualism

learning a language from birth and then learning another language later in life (around the ages of 3, 4, and 5).

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language attrition

the process of losing a language at an individual level.

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acculturation

assimilating to the host (majority) culture and language.

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endogenous communities

(multi-) bilingual people who live in communities that use more than one language on a daily basis.

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selective bilingualism

voluntarily learning a new language.

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circumstantial bilingualism

people who learn a second language due to a need because their first language doesn't allow them to function in that society.

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complementary principle

bilinguals use both languages to different extents depending on the context (family, work, school) and may present a need to transfer knowledge from one language to the other.

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family language policy

the explicit decisions families make with regards to language in the household.

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the one-parent-one- language approach (OPOL)

when parents/caretakers decide to use only one language with the child in the household. However this approach doesn't guarantee highly proficient bilingualism.

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heritage language

a family language that is a minority language in the society at large.

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additive bilingualism

occurs when a society promotes the learning and maintenance of minority languages.

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subtractive bilingualism

when society only promotes the learning of the societal (majority) language.

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code switching

changing from one language to another (has boundaries, categories, and rules).

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translanguaging

bilinguals have one linguistic repertoire (one united system) and they use resources from both languages within that united system. No boundaries/ categories you can go back and forth, expands to other resources such as the use of emojis.

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language interference

when the first language sneaks into the use of the second language during language use ( aka. cross-linguistic influence), can go both ways once you gain proficiency in the second language.

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language broker

children who interpret for their families (parents who are immigrants who do not speak the majority language), questions arise about its effects and consequences.

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separate underlying proficiency model:

languages are seen as a separate system and work independently rather than together. And this is especially with concepts that do not transfer from one language to another (ex. photosynthesis).

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common underlying proficiency model

languages are fused together so they do not function separately, they operate through the same central processing system.

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the threshold theory

bilingual children must reach a level of competence (this is what the different thresholds refer to) to enjoy cognitive benefits of bilingualism.

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BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)

everyday conversations, informal (eg. food, family...).

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CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)

language used in classroom settings (eg. mean, median, mode).

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The Nationality Act (1906)

was established to clarify the status of American citizens in written laws, it required immigrants to speak English in order to become naturalized Americans.

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Meyers vs. Nebraska (1923)

Nebraska had a law prohibiting teachers from teaching foreign languages to children at school. Supreme court found that being proficient in a foreign language was not "injurious to the health , morals, or understanding of the ordinary child".

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Farrington vs Tokushige (1927)

became unconstitutional for Hawai'ian education authorities to put a restriction on afterschool based community based Japanese and Chinese heritage programs.

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National Defense Education Act (1958)

during the Cold War, the National Defense Act promoted foreign language instruction and science programs for language majority speakers in education from elementary to university.

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The Civil Rights Act (1964)

meant to promote civil rights and prevent discrimination because it protected speakers of minority languages, allowing bilingualism to become associated with preventing discrimination.

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The Bilingual Education Act (1968)

Acknowledged that students who aren't fluent in English need specialized instruction it authorized the use of federal funds for bilingual education and programs and ELL education, it indicated that bilingual education and programs were to be seen as a part of federal education policy. The goal was to promote English learning (not to maintain the minority language), used their family language to teach English.

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Lau vs Nichols (1970)

court case that concerned whether or not non-English speaking students received equal education opportunities when instructed in a language they could not understand and was upheld in 1974 by the supreme court.

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1978 ESEA Title VII

the 1978 reauthorization lifted previous restrictions on bilingual education programs, as the 197 reauthorization did not allow for them. It also provided funding to help students who have limited English Proficiency. Sparked debated about how much of the native language should be used in teaching.

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Proposition 227

The "English for the Children" initiative was presented as an effort to improve English language instruction for children who needed to learn English for economic and employment opportunities. Bilingual education programs were restricted and required meeting ambiguous waver previsions of the law; was revoked in 2016 with the passing of Prop 58.

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No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

2001, signed into law by the George W. Bush Administration, aimed at improving student performance. Accountability through testing children in grades 3-8 and once in reading and math in high school. Schools had to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) if not punitive measures were taken against schools that failed to meet that goal.

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Equity/ Heritage discourse

efforts to remove barriers to the erasure of cultural and linguistic of minoritized students.

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Global Human Capital Discourse

an effort to increase student's marketability in an international global economy (this is the main focus of the Seal of Biliteracy).

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early- exit transitional bilingual education

(predominant model in the US) goal is that by the 3rd/4th grade student is in mainstream English courses.

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Late exit transitional bilingual education

supports bilingual education up to the 6th grade, promoted by the idea that it takes 6 years to gain proficiency in another language.

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typology of bilingual education

the different categories/classifications of bilingual education (umbrella term) programs.

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content-based ESL

English as a second language instruction that is targeted to curriculum/content being taught in student's classes.

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pull-out ESL

students are pulled out of content courses to work on English language skills for class work.

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sheltered English Immersion (SEI)

content teachers are trained to alter curricula/subject are instructed for emerging bilingual students differentiate instruction (ex. SIOP).

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Dual (two-way) Immersion

school program that enrolls ~50% of students that speak a minority language (Mandarin, Korean, Vietnamese, Taglog, Spanish, Japanese) at home with ~50% of students who speak a majority language (English). Importantly content instruction is taught between both languages 90-10 (90% of content in minority language, 10% in majority language); 50-50.

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Heritage language education

language courses/programs designed to teach students' family languages with the goal of achieving literacy skills in the family language.

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indigenous language education

language courses/programs to support indigenous languages in the United States, especially in indigenous reservation areas.

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immersion bilingual education (or full immersion)

promotes biliteracy, students are 100% immersed in the second/minority language (no instruction in the majority language until subsequent years 2nd or 3rd grade).

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Content and language integration learning (CLIL)

part of the content is learned in a second language (taking a bio class in English for example).

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test validity

how well the test measures what it is intended to measure (is it doing a good job at measuring).

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test reliability

consistency of the results a test gives, no matter how many tests you give in a short amount of time the results should remain the same.

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The Frankenstein approach

A taco from here, a croissant from there, a toga from here.

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The 4-F Approach

Folk dances, Festivals, Fairs, and Food

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The tour guide approach

the identification of monuments, rivers, and cities

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The By-the-way approach

sporadic lectures or bits of behavior selected to emphasize differences between cultures.

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Perspectives

the traditional ideas, attitudes, meanings, and values of the members of that society.

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Practices

the patterns of behaviors accepted by a society; they represent knowledge of "what to do when and where".

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Products

things created by members of a cultures, both tangible and intangible.

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Register

the level of formality in language determined by the context (oral vs spoken for instance).

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interlanguage

An intermediate form of language used by second language learners in the process of learning a language. Interlanguage contains some transfer or borrowing from the first language, and is an approximate system with regard to grammar and communicating meaning.

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comprehensible input

meaningful, context-supported language that is clearly understood by the learner, language is acquired through understandable messages

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Full inclusion

placing students with disabilities in mainstream classrooms. Relates to bilingualism because for bilingual students there is always the question of should students with special needs e placed in bilingual education classes/programs.

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