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What are the types of intermolecular forces?
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London Dispersion Forces, Dipole-Dipole Attractions, Hydrogen Bonds, Molecule Ion Attractions
What are London Dispersion Forces?
Electrons randomly move around the nucleus
Is this polarity permanent?
No, since e- move at almost the speed of light, the polarity only lasts for a fraction of a second, it can happen multiple times a second though
Are all atoms attracted to each other?
Yes, all atoms have at least some attraction for each other
What is true about London Dispersion Forces based on the more e- an atom or compound has? Why?
The more e-, the stronger the forces. More e- means a greater chance and magnitude of the unequal distribution of the electrons
What is true about London Dispersion Forces based on how close particles are to each other?
The London Dispersion Forces are stronger
What are Dipole-Dipole Interactions?
Have 1 atom with δ+ charge and 1 with δ- charge, when a bond has this distribution, it is polar
Where does the name dipole come from?
2 distinctive poles, one - and 1 +, di meaning 2
How are dipoles drawn?
As arrows that point along a bond from the + atom to the - atom
When does a Dipole-Dipole Interaction happen?
When 2 compounds containing dipoles come in contact, the δ+ side of one is attracted to the δ- side of the other
When does a Dipole-Dipole Interaction with multiple bonds happen?
Each compound must have one side that is δ+ and one that is δ-, must add up all the dipoles for each bond to see if the dipole is overall or resultant for the whole molecule
How do you draw a Dipole-Dipole Interaction with multiple bonds? What does it mean?
The dipole arrows must be drawn for each bond, if the arrows point in the same direction, they add up, if they point in opposite directions, they cancel out
What molecule is it when the dipoles add up?
A Polar molecule, they are asymmetrical in shape
What molecule is it when the dipoles cancel out?
A Non-Polar molecule, they are symmetrical in shape
What is a Hydrogen Bond?
A specific type of Dipole-Dipole Interaction, particularly strong
When does a Hydrogen Bond occur?
When hydrogen is polar covalently bonded with nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine (Cl)
What are Molecule Ion Attractions?
forces of attraction between an ionic compound and a polar molecule (not technically intermolecular but still is)
Why do ionic compounds dissociate in water?
The ions in the compound get surrounded by multiple water molecules and then the ionic bonds are ripped apart by these multiple Molecule Ion Attractions
Why do ionic compounds stay dissolved in water so well?
Because of Molecule Ion Attractions, the δ+Hs & the δ-Os
What is the VSEPR Theory?
Atoms in small molecules are arranged symmetrically because the valence shell pairs (both shared and unshared) repel each other
What does VSEPR stand for?
Valence shell electron pair repulsion
What are linear molecules?
Either a two-atom bond or a three-atom bond where the central atom has no additional unshared electrons
What are bent molecules?
A three-atom bond where the central atom has additional unshared electrons, the electrons repel
What are trigonal planar molecules?
A four-atom bond where the central atom has no additional unshared electrons, 2D
What are trigonal pyramidal molecules?
A four-atom bond where the central atom has additional unshared electrons, 3D
What is a tetrahedral?
A five-atom bond where the central atom has no additional unshared electrons, 3D
What is the bond angle of a bent molecule?
What is the bond angle of trigonal pyramidal?
What is the bond angle of tetrahedral?
What is the prefix for one atom?
What is the prefix for two atoms?
What is the prefix for three atoms?
What is the prefix for four atoms?
What is the prefix for five atoms?
What is the prefix for six atoms?
What is the prefix for seven atoms?
What is the prefix for eight?
What is the prefix for nine?
What is the prefix for ten?
What is the reactant?
The chemicals you start with, usually on the left side of the equation
What is the product?
What you end up with, usually on the right side of the equation
What does (aq) mean?
Aqueous, dissolved in water
What is a direct combination reaction?
A + B ↔ AB
What type of reaction is A + B ↔ AB?
Direct combination reaction
What is a decomposition reaction?
AB ↔ A + B
What type of reaction is AB ↔ A + B?
What is a single replacement reaction?
A + BX ↔ AX + B
What type of reaction is A + BX ↔ AX + B?
Single replacement reaction
What is a double replacement reaction?
AX + BY ↔ AY + BX
What type of reaction is AX + BY ↔ AY + BX?
Double replacement reaction
What is Molecular formula?
Shows the actual number and identity of all the atoms in each molecule of a compound
What is Empirical formula?
Shows the simplest whole ratio of all the elements in a molecule
Which elements are diatomic?
H, N, O, Cl, Br, I, F