Chapters 1-3 Vocab

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Biology

174 Terms

1

abstract

opening section of a scientific paper that summarizes the research and conclusions

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2

applied science

form of science that aims to solve real-world problems

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3

atom

smallest and most fundamental unit of matter that retains the properties of an element

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4

basic science

science that seeks to expand knowledge and understanding regardless of the short-term application of that knowledge

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5

biochemistry

study of the chemistry of biological organisms

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6

biology

the study of life

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7

biosphere

collection of all the ecosystems on Earth

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8

botany

study of plants

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9

cell

smallest fundamental unit of structure and function in living things

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10

community

set of populations inhabiting a particular area

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11

conclusion

section of a scientific paper that summarizes the importance of the experimental findings

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12

control

part of an experiment that does not change during the experiment

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13

deductive reasoning

form of logical thinking that uses a general inclusive statement to predict specific results

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14

descriptive science

(also, discovery science) form of science that aims to observe, explore, and investigate

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15

discussion

section of a scientific paper in which the author interprets experimental results, describes how variables may be related, and attempts to explain the phenomenon in question

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16

ecosystem

all the living things in a particular area together with the abiotic, nonliving parts of that environment

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17

eukaryote

organism with cells that have nuclei and membrane-bound organelles

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18

evolution

the process of gradual change in a population or species over time

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19

falsifiable

able to be disproven by experimental results

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20

homeostasis

ability of an organism to maintain constant internal conditions

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21

hypothesis

suggested explanation for an observation, which one can test

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22

hypothesis-based science

form of science that begins with a specific question and potential testable answers

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23

inductive reasoning

form of logical thinking that uses related observations to arrive at a general conclusion

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24

introduction

opening section of a scientific paper, which provides background information about what was known in the field prior to the research reported in the paper

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25

life science

field of science, such as biology, that studies living things

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26

macromolecule

large molecule, typically formed by the joining of smaller molecules

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27

materials and methods

section of a scientific paper that includes a complete description of the substances, methods, and techniques that the researchers used to gather data

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28

microbiology

study of the structure and function of microorganisms

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29

molecular biology

study of biological processes and their regulation at the molecular level, including interactions among molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins

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30

molecule

chemical structure consisting of at least two atoms held together by one or more chemical bonds

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31

natural science

field of science that is related to the physical world and its phenomena and processes

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32

neurobiology

study of the biology of the nervous system

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33

organ

collection of related tissues grouped together performing a common function

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34

organ system

level of organization that consists of functionally related interacting organs

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35

organelle

small structures that exist within cells and carry out cellular functions

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36

organism

individual living entity

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37

paleontology

study of life’s history by means of fossils

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38

peer-reviewed manuscript

scientific paper that a scientist’s colleagues review who are experts in the field of study

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39

phylogenetic tree

diagram showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species based on similarities and differences in genetic or physical traits or both; in essence, a hypothesis concerning evolutionary connections

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40

physical science

field of science, such as geology, astronomy, physics, and chemistry, that studies nonliving matter

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41

plagiarism

using other people’s work or ideas without proper citation, creating the false impression that those are the author’s original ideas

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42

population

all of the individuals of a species living within a specific area

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43

prokaryote

single-celled organism that lacks organelles and does not have nuclei surrounded by a nuclear membrane

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44

results

section of a scientific paper in which the author narrates the experimental findings and presents relevant figures, pictures, diagrams, graphs, and tables, without any further interpretation

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45

review article

paper that summarizes and comments on findings that were published as primary literature

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46

science

knowledge that covers general truths or the operation of general laws, especially when acquired and tested by the scientific method

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47

scientific method

method of research with defined steps that include observation, formulation of a hypothesis, testing, and confirming or falsifying the hypothesis

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48

serendipity

fortunate accident or a lucky surprise

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49

theory

tested and confirmed explanation for observations or phenomena

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50

tissue

group of similar cells carrying out related functions

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51

variable

part of an experiment that the experimenter can vary or change

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52

zoology

study of animals

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53

acid

molecule that donates hydrogen ions and increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

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54

adhesion

attraction between water molecules and other molecules

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55

aliphatic hydrocarbon

hydrocarbon consisting of a linear chain of carbon atoms

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56

anion

negative ion that is formed by an atom gaining one or more electrons

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57

aromatic hydrocarbon

hydrocarbon consisting of closed rings of carbon atoms

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58

atom

the smallest unit of matter that retains all of the chemical properties of an element

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59

atomic mass

the mass of an atom in amu, equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons

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60

average atomic mass

weighted mean of the mass number for an element’s isotopes, based on abundance in nature

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61

atomic number

total number of protons in an atom

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62

balanced chemical equation

statement of a chemical reaction with the number of each type of atom equalized for both the products and reactants

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63

base

molecule that donates hydroxide ions or otherwise binds excess hydrogen ions and decreases the hydrogen ions' concentration in a solution

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64

buffer

substance that resists a change in pH by absorbing or releasing hydrogen or hydroxide ions

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65

calorie

amount of heat required to change the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius

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66

capillary action

occurs because water molecules are attracted to charges on the inner surfaces of narrow tubular structures such as glass tubes, drawing the water molecules to the tubes' sides

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67

cation

positive ion that is formed by an atom losing one or more electrons

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68

chemical bond

interaction between two or more of the same or different atoms that results in forming molecules

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69

chemical reaction

process leading to rearranging atoms in molecules

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70

chemical reactivity

the ability to combine and to chemically bond with each other

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71

cohesion

intermolecular forces between water molecules caused by the polar nature of water; responsible for surface tension

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72

compound

substance composed of molecules consisting of atoms of at least two different elements

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73

covalent bond

type of strong bond formed between two atoms of the same or different elements; forms when electrons are shared between atoms

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74

dissociation

release of an ion from a molecule such that the original molecule now consists of an ion and the charged remains of the original, such as when water dissociates into H+ and OH

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75

electrolyte

ion necessary for nerve impulse conduction, muscle contractions, and water balance

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76

electron

negatively charged subatomic particle that resides outside of the nucleus in the electron orbital; lacks functional mass and has a negative charge of –1 unit

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77

electron configuration

arrangement of electrons in an atom’s electron shell (for example, 1s2 2s2 2p6)

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78

electron orbital

how electrons are spatially distributed surrounding the nucleus; the area where we are most likely to find an electron

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79

electron transfer

movement of electrons from one element to another; important in creating ionic bonds

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80

electronegativity

ability of some elements to attract electrons (often of hydrogen atoms), acquiring partial negative charges in molecules and creating partial positive charges on the hydrogen atoms

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81

element

one of 118 unique substances that cannot break down into smaller substances; each element has unique properties and a specified number of protons

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82

enantiomers

molecules that share overall structure and bonding patterns, but differ in how the atoms are three dimensionally placed such that they are mirror images of each other

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83

equilibrium

steady state of relative reactant and product concentration in reversible chemical reactions in a closed system

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84

evaporation

change from liquid to gaseous state at a body of water's surface, plant leaves, or an organism's skin

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85

functional group

group of atoms that provides or imparts a specific function to a carbon skeleton

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86

geometric isomer

isomer with similar bonding patterns differing in the placement of atoms alongside a double covalent bond

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87

heat of vaporization of water

high amount of energy required for liquid water to turn into water vapor

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88

hydrocarbon

molecule that consists only of carbon and hydrogen

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89

hydrogen bond

weak bond between slightly positively charged hydrogen atoms and slightly negatively charged atoms in other molecules

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90

hydrophilic

describes ions or polar molecules that interact well with other polar molecules such as water

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91

hydrophobic

describes uncharged nonpolar molecules that do not interact well with polar molecules such as water

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92

inert gas

(also, noble gas) element with filled outer electron shell that is unreactive with other atoms

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93

ion

atom or chemical group that does not contain equal numbers of protons and electrons

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94

ionic bond

chemical bond that forms between ions with opposite charges (cations and anions)

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95

irreversible chemical reaction

chemical reaction where reactants proceed unidirectionally to form products

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96

isomers

molecules that differ from one another even though they share the same chemical formula

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97

isotope

one or more forms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons

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98

law of mass action

chemical law stating that the rate of a reaction is proportional to the concentration of the reacting substances

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99

litmus paper

(also, pH paper) filter paper treated with a natural water

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100

mass number

total number of protons and neutrons in an atom

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