A&P Exam #2- Chapters 5, 6, 7

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  1. What are the locations and major function of simple squamous epithelial tissue?

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  1. What are the locations and major function of simple squamous epithelial tissue?

Locations: - Lungs (Alveoli) - Kidneys (glomeruli) - Skin (lines body)

Function: - Passive diffusion

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  1. What are the locations and functions of stratified squamous epithelial tissue?

Locations: - Part of the esophagus - Integument - Lines cavities that open to the outside environment - Oral - Nasal - Vagina - Anal canal

Functions: - Protection (microbes, water loss) - Secretions - Sensation - Selective permeability

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  1. What are the locations and functions of simple cuboidal epithelial tissue?

Locations: - Lines the ducts of exocrine glands - Lines the renal tubules (kidney)

Functions: - Absorption - Secretion

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  1. What are the locations and functions of simple columnar epithelial tissue?

Location: - Lines the digestive tract - Stomach - Duodenum - Jejunum - Ileum - Colon

Functions: - Absorption - Secretion

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  1. What are the locations and functions of pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue?

Locations: - Found in the trachea - Bronchial tubes (respiratory tract)

Function: - Secretes mucous (protective function)

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  1. Which type of connective tissue fibers are described as unbranched, "cable-like" long fibers?

Collagen fibers

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  1. Which type of connective tissue fibers are numerous in tendons and ligaments?

Collagen fibers

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  1. Which type of connective tissue fiber is similar to collagen fibers, but thinner?

Reticular fibers

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  1. Which type of connective tissue fibers are abundant in stroma of some organs? List one location

Reticular fibers, lymph nodes

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  1. Which type of connective tissue fiber contains protein elastin?

Elastic fibers

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  1. Which type of connective tissue fiber stretches and recoils easily?

Elastic fibers

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  1. Which type of connective tissue fiber are found in skin and walls of arteries?

Elastic fibers

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  1. Skeletal muscle tissue: a. Striated/Nonstriated? b. Intercalated discs? c. Multinucleated? d. Voluntary/Involuntary?

a. Striated b. No intercalated discs c. Multinucleated d. Voluntary

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  1. Cardiac muscle tissue: a. Striated/Nonstriated? b. Intercalated discs? c. Multinucleated? d. Voluntary/Involuntary?

a. Striated b. Intercalated discs c. Not multinucleated d. Involuntary

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  1. Smooth muscle tissue: a. Striated/Nonstriated? b. Intercalated discs? c. Multinucleated? d. Voluntary/Involuntary?

a. Nonstriated b. No intercalated discs c. Not multinucleated d. Involuntary

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  1. Where are cutaneous membranes found?

Covers external surface of body (skin)

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  1. Where are synovial membranes found?

Lines synovial joints and membranes

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  1. Where are serous membranes found?

Lines body cavities that aren't open to external environment

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  1. Where are mucous membranes found?

Lines compartments that open to external environment

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  1. What are the seven functions of the integument?

a. Protection from external environment b. Prevents water loss/gain c. Vitamin D (calcitriol) synthesis d. Absorption/secretion e. Temperature regulation f. Sensory reception – detects stimuli g. Immune function

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  1. Temperature regulation: Define vasoconstriction

Conserves heat

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  1. Temperature regulation: Define vasodilation

Detects stimuli

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  1. Wound repair: Define regeneration

Damaged cells/tissue is replaced with same type of tissue

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  1. Wound repair: Define fibrosis

Damaged area is filled with scar tissue

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  1. types of cartilage is found in the skeletal system?

Hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage

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  1. What are the four functions of bone?

a. Support and protection b. Levers for movement c. Hematopoiesis – blood cell production d. Mineral storage

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  1. Where does hematopoiesis occur?

Red bone marrow

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  1. What minerals are stored in the bone?

Calcium and phosphate

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  1. Types of bone cells: What is the function of osteoprogenitor cells?

Divide to produce more cells (Regenerative- mitosis yields a stem cell and a "committed cell" [develop into an osteoblast])

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  1. Types of bone cells: What is the function of osteoprogenitor cells?

??????

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  1. Types of bone cells: What is the function of osteoblasts?

Osteoid production (bone synthesis)

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  1. Types of bone cells: What is the function of osteocytes?

Detects mechanical stress

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  1. What is derived from osteoblasts?

Osteocytes

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  1. Types of bone cells: What is the function of osteoclasts?

Bone resorption (breakdown of bone)

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  1. Cartilage growth: What is appositional growth and where does it occur?

Growth in width, occurs at the perimeter (perichondrium)

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  1. Cartilage growth: What is interstitial growth and where does it occur?

Growth in length, occurs internally (within the cartilage)

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  1. Cartilage growth: What do chondrocytes do?

Produce new cartilage

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  1. Bone growth: What is appositional growth and where does it occur?

Width, occurs at periosteum

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  1. Bone growth: What is interstitial growth and where does it occur?

Length, occurs at epiphyseal plate, zones 1-5

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  1. What are the seven vitamins and hormones that affect bone growth/regulate calcium levels?

a. Growth hormone b. Thyroid hormone c. Estrogen and testosterone d. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) e. Vitamin D (calcitriol) f. Calcitonin g. Vitamin C

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  1. What do growth hormones do?

Stimulates production of somatomedin – stimulates epiphyseal plate

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  1. What do thyroid hormones do?

Stimulates epiphyseal plate

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  1. What do estrogen and testosterone do?

Accelerate growth at epiphyseal plate

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  1. What do Parathyroid hormone (PTH) do?

Increase release of calcium from bone (osteoclast); decrease calcium excretion and increases its reabsorption in kidneys

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  1. What does Vitamin D (calcitriol) do?

Increase calcium absorption from digestive tract

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  1. What does calcitonin do?

Decrease calcium levels by inhibiting osteoclast activity

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  1. What does Vitamin C do?

Needed for collagen synthesis

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  1. What is merocrine secretion?

Secretion released by exocytosis

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  1. What is apocrine secretion?

Apical portion of cell breaks down, allows secretions to be released

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  1. What is holocrine secretion?

Entire cell breaks and dissolves so secretions and all cell fragments are releases

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  1. What is the deepest layer of the epidermis?

Stratum basale

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  1. Which layer of the epidermis contains keratinocytes, melanocytes, and tactile cells?

Stratum basale

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  1. What are the functions of melanin and which layer of the epidermis is it found in?

  • Contributes to skin color and protects from uv light

  • Stratum basale

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  1. Where is the stratum lucidum layer of the epidermis found?

Only in thick skin

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  1. What is the most superficial layer of the epidermis?

Stratum corneum

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  1. Which layer of the epidermis contains dead, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium?

Stratum corneum

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  1. What increases surface area of the dermis?

Dermal papillae connected to epidermal ridges

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  1. Which layer of the dermis contains the eccrine?

Reticular layer

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  1. Which part of the skin is not part of the integument?

Subcutaneous level

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  1. Which part of the skin contains adipose tissue?

Subcutaneous layer

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  1. Which three molecules contribute to skin pigmentation?

Hemoglobin, carotene, melanin

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  1. Skin pigmentation: What does hemoglobin do and what does it look like?

Binds oxygen, bright red color

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  1. Skin pigmentation: What do orange vegetable create in the skin?

Carotene

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  1. Skin pigmentation: What determines the amount of melanin in someone's skin?

Genetics

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  1. What are the four cells of connective tissue?

Fibroblast, adipocytes, macrophages, mesenchymal cells

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  1. Connective tissue cells: What do fibroblast cells do?

Produce fibers and ground substance of extracellular matrix

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  1. Connective tissue cells: Where are adipocyte cells found?

Adipose connective tissue-- dominant area of large clusters

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  1. Connective tissue cells: What do mesenchymal cells do?

Divide to replace damaged cells (one replaces mesenchymal cell, other becomes committed cell)

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  1. Connective tissue cells: What do fixed macrophage cells do?

  • Engulf damaged cells or pathogens

  • Release chemicals that stimulate immune system/attract wandering cells

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  1. Which connective tissue cell is flat with tapered ends and is most abundant resident cell in CT proper?

Fibroblasts

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  1. Ground substance is the liquid portion that can be what?

Solid or semisolid

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  1. Which part of blood is a ground substance?

Blood plasma

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  1. What does blood plasma contain that dissolved in plasma?

Proteins

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  1. Nervous tissue: What are the four structures of neurons?

Cell body, dendrites, axon, glial cells

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  1. Nervous tissue: What is the cell body?

Large portion that contains the nucleus

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  1. Nervous tissue: What is the function of dendrites?

Receive incoming signals and transmit information

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  1. Nervous tissue: What is the function of the axon?

Carries outgoing signals to other cells

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  1. Nervous tissue: What is the function of glial cells?

Responsible for protection, nourishment, and support of neurons

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  1. Nervous tissue: Do glial cells transmit nerve impulses?

No

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  1. Put the following layers of the epidermis in order from superficial to deep:

  • Stratum lucidum

  • Stratum granulosum

  • Stratum basale

  • Stratum spinosum

  • Stratum corneum

  • Stratum corneum

  • Stratum lucidum

  • Stratum granulosum

  • Stratum spinosum

  • Stratum basale

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  1. Bone tissue: What is hyaline cartilage of composed of?

Collagen fibers which are produced by chondroblast

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  1. Bone tissue: What does hyaline cartilage do and where is it found?

F: Provides support, bone flexibility L: Nose, trachea, larynx, costal cartilage, articular ends of long bones, most of fetal skeleton

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  1. Bone tissue: What is fibrocartilage?

Intercalated discs of vertebrae

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  1. Bone tissue: What does fibrocartilage do and where is it found?

F: Support and protection L: Knees, between vertebrae of back

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  1. Bone formation: What is intramembranous ossification and which bones does it form?

Thickened mesenchyme

  • Flat bones of skull, some facial bones, mandible (jaw), center part of the clavicle (collar bone)

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  1. Bone formation: What is endochondral ossification and which bones does it form?

Hyaline cartilage model

  • Most bones of skeleton: Bones of limbs, pelvis, vertebrae, ends of clavicle

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  1. Bone formation: Put the following steps of intramembranous ossification in order-

a. Formation of lamellar bone b. Ossification center forms in thickened mesenchyme c. Formation of woven bone d. Calcification of osteoid

b. Ossification center forms in thickened mesenchyme d. Calcification of osteoid c. Formation of woven bone a. Formation of lamellar bone

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  1. Bone formation: Put the following steps of endochondral ossification in order-

a. Cartilage calcifies, periosteal bone collar forms b. Secondary ossification center in epiphysis c. Primary ossification center in diaphysis d. Fetal hyaline cartilage model develops

d. Fetal hyaline cartilage model develops a. Cartilage calcifies, periosteal bone collar forms c. Primary ossification center in diaphysis b. Secondary ossification center in epiphysis

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  1. What do merocrine glands secrete and where?

Sweat onto skin surface

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  1. What do apocrine glands secrete and where?

Viscous cloudy secretions into hair follicles located in axillae, around nipples, in pubic and anal region

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  1. What do sebaceous glands secrete and where?

Oily sweat (sebum) into hair follicle

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  1. Hair follicles are found in which type of skin?

Thin skin

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  1. Where are sensory nerves and blood vessels found in the skin?

Dermis

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  1. What is the dermis primarily composed of?

Irregular connective tissue

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  1. What are the two modified apocrine sweat glands?

Ceruminous glands, mammary glands

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  1. What do ceruminous glands secrete?

Waterproof earwax, cerumen

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  1. What do mammary glands secrete?

Breast milk

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