UNH Anatomy Exam 1 CH 1, 2, 3

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Integumentary System

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232 Terms

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Integumentary System

Organs: Skin, hair, sweat glands, nails Functions: Protects against environmental hazards Helps regulate body temp Provides sensory info

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Skeletal System

Organs: Bones, cartilage, assoc ligaments, bone marrow Functions: Provides support and protection for other tissues Stores calcium and other minerals Forms blood cells

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Muscular System

Organs: Skeletal muscles and assoc tendons Functions: Provides movement Provides protection and support for other tissues Generates hear that maintains body temp

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Nervous System

Organs: Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs Functions: Directs immediate responses to stimuli Coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems Provides and interprets sensory info about external conditions

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Endocrine System

Organs: Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, endocrine tissues in other systems Functions: Directs long term changes in the activities of other systems Adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body Controls many structural and functional changes during development

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Cardiovascular System

Organs: Heart, Blood, Blood Vessels Functions: Dist. blood cells, water and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide Dist. heat and assists in control of body temp

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Lymphatic System

Organs: Spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils Functions: Defends against infection and disease Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream

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Respiratory System

Organs: Nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli Functions: Delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs) Provides oxygen to bloodstream Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream Produces sounds for communication

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Digestive System

Organs: Teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, sm and large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas Functions: Processes and digests food Absorbs and conserves water Absorbs nutrients Stores energy reserves

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Urinary System

Organs: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra Functions: Excretes waste products from the blood Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH

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Male Reproductive

Organs: testes, epididymis, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, scrotum Functions: Produces male sex cells (sperm), seminal fluids, and hormones Sexual intercourse

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Female Reproductive

Organs: Ovaries, uterus, uterine tubes, vagina, labia, clitoris, mammary glands Functions: Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery Provides milk to nourish newborn infant Sexual intercourse

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Anatomy

The study of internal and external body structures and their physical relationships among other body parts

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Physiology

The study of how living organisms perform their functions. Biochem, bio, chem, genetics

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The principle of complementarity of structure and function

All specific functions are performed by specific structures and the form of a structure relates to its function

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Gross Anatomy

(Macroscopic Anatomy) Involves examining relatively large structures- no microscope- dissecting

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Surface Anatomy

Type of gross anatomy- the study of general form and superficial markings. exterior features

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Regional Anatomy

Type of gross- focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body (head, neck, trunk)

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Systemic Anatomy

Type of Gross- study of the structure of organ systems (groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner) ex. muscular system, cardiovascular system

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Clinical Anatomy

Type of gross- Includes a # of sub specialties important in clinical practice ex. Pathological anatomy: anatomical features that change during illness, radiographic anatomy: anatomical structures seen using specialized imaging techniques, surgical anatomy: anatomical landmarks important in surgery

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Developmental Anatomy

Type of gross- describes the changes in form that take place between conception and adulthood.

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Microscopic Anatomy

Deals w structures that we cant see without magnification. Cells and molecules

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Cytology

Type of microscopic- the study of the internal structure of individual cells.

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Cells

The simplest units of life. made up of chem substances in various combinations. Lives depend on chem processes taking place in trill. of cells in body. Groups of atoms, molecules, and organelles

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Histology

Type of microscopic- Examination of tissues and structures

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Tissues

Groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific functions

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Organs

Combined tissues- Heart, kidney, liver.

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Human Physiology

Study of the functions or workings of human body. More difficult to examine than anatomical structures

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Cell Physiology

Study of functions of cells. looks at events involving atoms and molecules important to life. Chem processes within cells as well as chem interactions among cells

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Organ Physiology

Study of the functions of specific organs.

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Systemic Physiology

Includes all aspects of the functioning of specific organ systems

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Pathological Physiology

Study of the effects of diseases on organ functions or system functions

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Signs

An objective disease indication (fever)

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Symptoms

A subjective disease indication (tiredness)

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Scientific Method

A system of advancing knowledge that begins by proposing a hypothesis to answer a question- testing that hypothesis w data collected thru observation and experimentation

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Chemical (Molecular) Level

Atoms: Smallest stable units of matter. Can combine to form molecules w complex shapes. Anatomic components and 3D shape of molecule determine its function. Molecule=group of atoms working together

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Cellular Level

Cells: Smallest living units in the body. complex molecules form various types of larger structures called organelles. Ea organelle has specific function in cell.

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Tissue Level

Tissue: group of cells working together to perform one or more specific functions.

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Organ Level

Organs: made of two or more tissues working together to perform specific functions.

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Organ System Level

Organ System: Group of organs interacting to perform particular function. Humans have 11

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Organism Level

Organism: Human- highest level of organization that we consider. All body systems must work together to maintain the life and health of the organism

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Homeostasis

All body systems working together to maintain Existence of a stable internal environment. Vital to organisms survival, failure leads to illness/ death. Goal to physiological regulation

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Homeostatic regulation

The adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis

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44

Autoregulation (intrinsic)

Automatic Process that occurs when a cell, tissue, organ, or organ system adjusts in response to some environmental change

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Extrinsic Regulation

Process that results from the activities of the nervous system or endocrine system.Organ systems detect an environmental change and send electrical signal (nervous sys-more rapid) or chemical messenger (endocrine sys- slower) to control or adjust the activities of another or many other systems simultaneously

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Hormones

Chem messengers sent into blood stream by endocrine system.

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Receptor

Sensor that is sensitive to a particular stimulus or environmental change. Receives stimulus

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Control Center

Receives and processes info supplied by receptor and sends out commands.

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Effector

Cell/organ that responds to commands of control center and whose activity either opposes / enhances stimulus. Carries out instructions

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Set point

Desired value. Control center keeps within reasonable limits. Effector helps get there.

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Negative Feedback

Effector activated by the control center opposes/ negates the original stimulus. Minimizes change. Normal range is achieved

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Positive Feedback

Produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the original change in conditions rather than opposing it. Extreme responses- speed up processes. Moved away from homeostasis, normal range is lost.

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Thermoregulation

Control of body temp. Relationship between heat loss (body surface) and heat production (all active tissues) is altered Body temp can vary due to changes in the set point or small fluctuations around the set point

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Positive Feedback Loop

Typically found when a potentially dangerous/stressful process must be completed quickly to restore homeostasis

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Disease

Organ systems malfunction due to infection, injury, or genetic abnormality in which effects are so severe that homeostatic mechanisms cannot fully compensate for them so one or more variables are pushed outside their normal range of values

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State of equilibrium

Opposing processes or forces are in balance

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Dynamic Equilibrium

Maintaining a state of equilibrium that keeps vital conditions within a normal range of values. Systems are continually adapting and adjusting to changing conditions

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58

Superficial Anatomy

Involves locating structures on or near the body surface

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59

Anatomical Landmarks

Structures that can be felt or palpated

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Anatomical Regions

Specific areas used for reference purposes (quadrants and regions)

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Anatomical Position

Hands at sides palms forward feet together standing

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Anterior(ventral) view

Shows body from the front

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Posterior(dorsal) view

Shows body from the back

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64

Supine

Person lying down in anatomical position face up

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65

Prone

Person lying down in anatomical position face down

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66

Abdominopelvic Quadrants

formed by pair of imaginary perpendicular lines that intersect at umbilicus (navel) Right upper Left upper Right lower left lower

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Abdominopelvic regions

More precise. (9) right hypochondriac-epigastric-left hypochondriac right lumbar-umbillical-left lumar right inguinal-hypogastric(pubic)-left inguinal

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Proximal

Toward the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk

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Distal

Away from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk

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Lateral

Away from midline

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Medial

Toward midline

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Caudal

Toward tail (coccyx)

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Cranial/ cephalic

Toward head

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Superficial

At, near, or relatively close to body surface

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Deep

Toward interior of body, farther from surface

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Sectional Planes

(3) Plane=3D axis, section= single view or slice alone one of the planes

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77

Transverse

Plane: Divides body into superior and inferior (top and bottom)- perpendicular to long axis Section: cut in this plane-cross section.

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Frontal (coronal)

Oriented parallel to long axis. separates anterior and posterior (front and back)

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79

Sagittal

Oriented parallel to long axis. Separated right and left portions. midsagittal- plane passes through midline, equal sides parasagittal- misses midline. unequal sides

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80

Body cavities

Closed, fluid filled, lined by thin tissue layer called serous membrane/serosa. internal regions Protect delicate organs from shocks and impacts permit significant changes in size and shape of internal organs

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Ventral Cavity

(coelom) DIvided by diaphragm. Thoracic abdominopelvic

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82

Thoracic cavity

Pleural cavity- sep into left and right by mediastinum. right and left lungs. serous membrane lining=pleura Pericardial-sm chamber surrounds heart. serous membrane=pericardium

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83

Abdominopelvic

Peritoneal-serous membrane= peritoneum

Abdominal- (superior) extends from inferior surface of diaphragm to level of superior margins of pelvis. liver, stomach, spleen, sm intestine, most of large intestine (retroperitoneal- between peritoneal lining and muscular wall of abdominal cavity)

Pelvic- inferior to abdominal. urinary bladder, reproductive organs and distal portion of lrg intestine, rectum (infraperitoneal- extend inferior to peritoneal cavity)

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84

Diaphragm

Flat muscular sheet. Separates anatomical regions

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85

Mediastinum

Large mass of connective tissue that surrounds, stabilizes, and supports esophagus, trachea, thymus, and major blood vessels that originate or end at heart. Upper- filled w blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, thymus Lower- pericardial cavity: heart

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Viscera

Internal organs that are enclosed by cavities. delicate serous membrane lines walls of internal cavities and covers surfaces of viscers

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Serous fluid

Watery fluid, moistens serous membranes, coats opposing surfaces, and reduces friction

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Visceral serosa

Portion of serous membrane that covers visceral organ

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Parietal serosa

Lines inner surface of body wall or chamber/cavity

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Chemistry

Science of change

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Matter

Anything that takes up space and has mass. Made up of atoms. Atoms join together to form chem w diff characteristics Chem characteristics det physiology at molecular and chem levels

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Mass

Amount of material in matter. Physical property that determines weight in Earth's gravitational field

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Subatomic Particles

Compose atoms

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Protons

Positive charge. 1 mass unit. In nucleus

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Neutron

Neutral charge. 1 mass unit. In nucleus

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Electron

Negative charge. Low mass. Located in electron cloud. Attracted to proton.

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Mass # of atom

Protons + neutrons

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98

Atomic Number

Number of protons

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99

Electron cloud

Dimensions determine the overall size of atom. Electrons determine reactivity of the atom. Contains shells/ energy levels that hold max # of electrons. lower shells fill first. first one=2. Outermost=valence shell-determines bonding. # electrons per shell corresp to # of atoms in that row of the periodic table

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100

Elements

Pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind. Determined by the atomic # of an atom. Most basic chemicals. Cannot be changed or broken down into simpler substances in chemical reactions

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