Unit 1: Music Fundamentals I: Pitch, Major Scales and Key Signatures, Rhythm, Meter, and Expressive Elements

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Articulation

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101 Terms

1

Articulation

________ can also be indicated by symbols such as dots, lines, and accents placed above or below the note.

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Alla breve

________ (Cut time)- Designated by a c with a line going through, is a substitute of 2 /2.

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Neutral

________ clef- Used for rhythm only or for pitchless or untuned instruments such as triangle, cymbals, or tambourine.

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4

Tenor

________ clef- When the C clef is placed on the fourth line of the staff.

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5

exact interval size

The ________ is described by quantity and quality.

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circle

The ________ of fifths- Demonstrates the relationship of the tonal centers to each other.

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7

Rhythmic patterns

________ should be grouped with the beam to indicate beat units.

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Dot

________ and tie- Two symbols that extend the length or duration of a note.

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9

overall sound

It can greatly affect the ________ and feel of a musical performance.

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multiple staves

System- When ________ are connected together by bar lines, brackets, or a brace.

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intervals

All ________ built from the tonic up to notes within a major scale are either major or perfect.

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12

Musical symbol

Double flat- ________ that lowers the pitch by two half steps.

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13

compound meter

In ________, the time signature represents the subdivision, not the beat.

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key signature

The ________ is always written on the staff between the clef and the meter signature.

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15

interval

A minor ________ is one- half step smaller than major.

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16

Pitch

The highness or lowness of a sound

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17

System

When multiple staves are connected together by bar lines, brackets, or a brace

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18

Neutral clef

Used for rhythm only or for pitchless or untuned instruments such as triangle, cymbals, or tambourine

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19

Staf (Staves)

Where most music is written

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20

Clefs

What determines the names of the lines and spaces used

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21

C clef

Sign used for all of the previously mentioned vocal ranges

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22

Movable C clef

The clef that locates middle C and moves around from line to line to designate range

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23

Alto clef

When the C clef is placed on the third line of the staff

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24

Tenor clef

When the C clef is placed on the fourth line of the staff

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25

Treble clef

When the G clef is placed on the second line of the staff

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26

Bass clef

When the F clef is placed on the fourth line of the staff

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27

Ledger lines

Small lines that extend the staff while still keeping the five lines and four spaces intact

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28

Half step

The smallest space or distance between notes

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29

Sharp

Raises the pitch one-half step above its natural pitch

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30

Flat

Lowers the pitch one-half step below its natural pitch

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31

Natural

The musical symbol that cancels out a flat or a sharp

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32

Double sharp

Musical symbol used to raise a pitch by two half steps

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33

Double flat

Musical symbol that lowers the pitch by two half steps

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34

Dot and tie

Two symbols that extend the length or duration of a note

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35

Dot

Used to extend the value of a single note by one-half of its original value

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36

Double dot

Lengthens the dotted note value by half the length of the first dot

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37

Tie

It combines the durational values of two or more notes of the same pitch using a curved line

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38

Half step

The smallest space or distance between notes

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39

Whole step

The distance between two notes that are two semitones or two half steps apart

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40

Interval

The distance between two pitches

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41

Quality

Expressed by a number and determined by counting the distance between one letter name and the next letter name

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42

Diminished interval

An interval that is one-half step smaller than perfect or minor

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43

Augmented interval

An interval that is one-half step larger than major or perfect

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44

Enharmonic intervals

They sound the same but are spelled differently and function differently

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45

Doubly augmented interval

When a major or perfect interval is made one whole step larger without changing the letter names of the pitches

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46

Doubly diminished interval

When a minor or perfect interval is made one whole step smaller without changing the letter names of the pitches

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Consonant intervals

Stable

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48

Dissonant intervals

Unstable, the impression of activity or tension

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49

Major scale

Created using a pattern for whole and half steps

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50

The circle of fifths

Demonstrates the relationship of the tonal centers to each other

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51

Key signature

A form of shorthand that dispenses with the writing of accidentals (sharps and flats) for the notes affected by the pattern

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For sharps

The last sharp in the key signature is scale degree 7, so the name of the key is up one-half step

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For flats

The last flat in the key signature is scale degree 4, so the name of the key is the next to the last flat in the key signature

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54

Common time

Represented by a lowercase c, it is used to represent 4/4

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55

Alla breve (Cut time)

Designated by a c with a line going through, is a substitute of 2/2

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56

Asymmetrical meters

Meters that have beat units of unequal length

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57

Meter

The organization of musical time into recurring patterns of strong and weak beats

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Duple (Strong weak)

Two beats per measure

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Triple (Strong weak weak)

Three beats per measure

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Quadruple (Strong weak less strong weak)

Four beats per measure

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Downbeat

The first beat of the measure

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62

Anacrusis

Songs that begin with one or more notes that precede the first full measure

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Syncopation

The rhythmic displacement of the expected strong beat created by using dots, rests, ties, accent marks, rhythm, and dynamics

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Hemiola

A special type of syncopation where the bead is temporarily regrouped into twos

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Cross-rhythm

Metric device where the rhythmic relation of three notes occurs in the time of two

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Note head

Body of the note

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Stem

Part of a note that is common to all note types shorter in duration than the whole note

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Flag

Part of the note that is common to all note types shorter in duration than a quarter note

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Bar line

The vertical line that divides the staff into measures

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70

Measure

The unit of space between the bar lines

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Double bar line

Two lines that signal the end of a section of music

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72

Final bar line

Indicates the end of the piece or composition

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Tempo

The speed of the beat

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Adagio

slow and stately

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Allegro

fast and lively

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Andante

moderately slow and flowing

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Largo

very slow and broad

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Presto

very fast and lively

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79

p (piano)

soft

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80

f (forte)

loud

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mf (mezzo forte)

moderately loud

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mp (mezzo piano)

moderately soft

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83

pp (pianissimo)

very soft

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84

ff (fortissimo)

very loud

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85

Absolute dynamics

Refers to the specific volume level indicated by the symbol or word

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86

Relative dynamics

Refers to the change in volume level from one symbol or word to another

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87

Articulation

The way in which notes are played or sung

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staccato

short and detached

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89

legato

smooth and connected

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accent

emphasized or accented

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marcato

strongly accented

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tenuto

held for full value

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Perfect intervals

  • Unison

  • Perfect fourth

  • Perfect fifth

  • Perfect eighth

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Major intervals

  • Major second

  • Major third

  • Major sixth

  • Major seventh

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95

Parts of a musical note

  • Head

  • Stem

  • Flag

  • Beam

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96

Music notation symbols

Bar line

Measure

Double bar line

Final bar line

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97

types of tempo

adagio

allegro

andante

largo

presto

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98

Dynamics

The volume or intensity of a musical performance.

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99

Most common symbols to indicate dynamics

p (piano)

f (forte)

mf (mezzo forte)

mp (mezzo piano)

pp (pianissimo)

ff (fortissimo)

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100

main type of dynamics

absolute dynamics

relative dynamics

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