Immune System

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Disease

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37 Terms

1

Disease

failure of homeostasis

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2

causes of disease

  1. genetic

  2. pollutants

  3. harmful lifestyles

  4. microorganisms

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3

pathogens

disease causing organisms

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4

pathogens enter the body through:

  1. respiratory pathway

  2. digestive system

  3. urethra

  4. breaks in the skin

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5

first line of defense

physical and chemical barriers

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6

physical barriers

skin membranes

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7

chemical barriers

sweat, tears, saliva, mucus, stomach acid, urine

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8

second line of defense

inflammatory response

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9

the inflammatory response

non-specific defense or innate

involves phagocytes

the reaction causes swelling, redness, warmth, and pain in an area of infection

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10

Phagocytes

type of white blood cells that do phagocytosis

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11

Events of the inflammatory response

  1. blood cells near the wound or infection expands and white blood cells leaks from the vessels to enter the infected tissue

  2. phagocytes are attracted to the area and engulf the bacteria

  3. chemicals are released which cause a rise in body temp (fever)

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12

Increases temperature help:

slow the growth of pathogens

increase the rate of chemical reactions that kill pathogens

increases heart rate so white blood cells get to the infection faster

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13

third line of defense

the immune system

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14

the immune system

involves white blood cells:

  1. phagocytes

  2. lymphocytes (B cells, helper T cells, killer T cells)

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15

antigens

any substance that triggers the immune system

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16

antibody

protein produced by the immune system that helps destroy pathogens

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17

2 types of immune response

  1. humoral response

  2. cell mediated immune response

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humoral response

  1. the antigen comes in contact with the WBC and activates it

  2. chemicals are released

  3. chemical cause white blood cells to divide rapidly forming identical cells

  4. 1/2 of the WBC make antibodies

  5. 1/2 remain inactive and become memory cells

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19

antibodies characteristics

shaped like the letter y and have two binding sites

each antibody is custom made for a specific antigen

antibodies attract phagocytes which engulf both the antibody and the antigen

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20

cell-mediated immune response

other types of WBCs called T-cells attack antigens by transferring proteins into the cell membrane of the infected cell causing fluid to leak out: cell ruptures and dies

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21

vaccination

injection of a weakened form of a pathogen to produce immunity

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22

types of immunity

  1. active immunity

  2. passive immunity

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23

active immunity

  1. body produces it’s own antibodies to attack an antigen

  2. usually the result of contracting the disease

  3. can also develop through a vaccination

  4. (long-lasting/permanent immunity

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24

passive immunity

  1. person is given antibodies (borrowed immunity)

  2. temporary (about a month)

  3. maternal immunity: antibodies from the mother enters the baby’s blood before birth; or are transmitted through breast milk

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25

ABO blood groups

A, B, AB, O

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26

A

A antigens; B antibodies

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B

B antigens; A antibodies

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AB

A+B antigens; no antibodies

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O

no antigens; A and B antibodies

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A can recieve these blood types

A, O

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B can recieve these blood types

B, O

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AB can recieve these blood types

A, B, O, AB

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33

O can recieve these blood types

O

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34

Transplants

  1. recognized by the recipient as foreign (antigen) and the immune system response is activated

  2. Transplants are destroyed in a process called rejection unless the donor-recipient are closely related and immune suppressant drugs are used

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35

allergies

  1. rapid reaction to an antigen that is not normally harmful

  2. when allergens bind to mast cells they release histamine which causes symptoms (runny nose, swollen eyes, itching, sneezing, coughing, rash)

  3. allergic reactions may cause asthma

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36

AIDS (aquired immunodeficiency syndrome)

cause: human immunodeficeny virus (HIV) which is spread by the exchange of bodily fluids

  1. HIV infects helper T cells and may remain in cells for months or years without producing syndromes

  2. when HIV becomes active it reproduces and destroys helper T cells

  3. immune system weakens

  4. symptoms include: swollen lymph node, glands, fever, weakness, unexplained weight loss, frequent infections such as pnuemonia

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37

cancer

  1. T cells search the body and destroy cancer cells in healthy people

  2. suppression of the immune system in HIV can result in cancer

  3. other causes of cancer include: viruses, radiation (ex. UV light from the sun), and chemicals (ex. tobacco)

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