Grade VI Term 2 revision

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Upanishads

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Upanishads

  • Later Vedic literature

  • Derived from terms - upa meaning near, ni meaning down and shad meaning to sit

  • Recorded in the form of dialogue between teachers and students

  • Criticised the prevalence of excessive rituals

  • 108 Upanishads

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Gargi

Upanishad thinker known for her knowledge and took part in intellectual debates

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Causes for the rise of new religious sects

  • Reaction against excessive rituals that were elaborate and costly as followed by the brahmins.

  • Rigid varna system - originally determined by occupation and slowly became determined by birth.

  • Increasing influence of vaishyas due to importance of trade followed these new religions like Buddhism and Jainism as there was no attachement to the hereditary varna system.

  • Use of everyday languages in the new religions.

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Jainism

  • An Indian religion strengthened by Vardhana Mahavira

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Mahavira

  • A Lichchhavi prince who left home at the age of thirty and found full enlightenment

  • He became an Arhant and Jina.

  • He was known as kaivalya showing attainment of perfect knowledge.

  • Preached the religious ideas in Magadha and Anga

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Five doctrines of Jainism

  • Do not commit violence

  • Do not speak a lie

  • Do not steal

  • Do not acquire property

  • Observe celibacy

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Jainas

Followers of Mahavira

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Life of Jainas

  • Discarding of clothes completely

  • Observe the five doctrines

  • Vow of non-killing and non-violence

  • Did not condemn the varna system

  • Person born in high virtues from previous birth are in a high varna

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Spread of Jainism

  • Order of ascetics in Anga and Magadha

  • Both women and men admitted in the order

  • Gradually spread to Kalinga, Malwa, Gujarat, Rajasthan and south India

  • Doctrines were taught in Prakrit ( common people language)

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Sects in Jainism

  • Digambaras - Strict followers of Mahavira and chose not to wear clothes

  • Shvetambaras - wore a white dress and covered their mouths with white cloth

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Failure of Jainism to attract the masses

  • Did not go against the varna system

  • Large sections of the population like farmers could not follow complete non-violence as their occupation involves killing of pests and insects

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Gautama Buddha

  • Also known as Siddhartha

  • Son of the chief of Republican tribe of Sakyas

  • Born in Lumbini

  • Left his family as a prince and abandoned his family in search of true knowledge

  • Received enlightenment under the peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar

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Dharmachakrapravartana

  • Meaning “Turning of the Wheel of Law”

  • First sermon of Buddha in Sarnath

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Kusinagara

Buddha passed away in this place

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Karma

Good or bad action

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Teachings of Buddha

  • In Pali language

  • Believed that actions, good or bad, influence us in this and all other lives

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Buddha’s four noble truths

  • The world is full of sorrow

  • The cause for sorrow is desire or thirst

  • This sorrow can be stopped

  • The sorrow can be ended by an eight-fold path

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Eight-fold path of Buddha

  • Right faith

  • Right thought

  • Right speech

  • Right action

  • Right living

  • Right efforts

  • Right remembrance

  • Right meditation

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Sangha

The place where monks monks stay together after wandering, preaching and seeking alms.

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Vihara

Buddhist monasteries

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Code of conduc for the followers of Buddhism

  • Not possessing the property of others

  • Practicing non-violence

  • Discarding use of intoxicants

  • Speaking the truth

  • Not indulging in corrupt practices

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Spread of Buddhism

Adopted by several states like Magadha, Kosala and Kausambi

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Reason for the spread of Buddhism

  • Did not recognise the existence of god and soul

  • Attacked the varna system thus gaining popularity among the people

  • Women were also part of the sangha

  • The use of Pali

  • No importance attached to rituals and sacrifices

  • Popularised by rulers like Ashoka

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Similarities between Buddhism and Jainism

  • Started by people from the kshatrya varna/ rulers

  • Opposed the superiority of brahmins

  • Admitted people from lower caste and women

  • Attracted vaishyas and traders

  • No elaborate rituals and practices

  • Taught in the language of the masses like Prakrit and Pali

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Differences between Buddhism and Jainism

  • Buddha did not focus on the existence of God whereas ahavira denied the existence of God

  • Jainism strongly focused on non-violence whereas Buddhism did not take any extreme measures

  • Jainism - more focus on austerity/ refraining from worldly pleasures

  • Jainism - asked followers to give up the use of clothes like Jainism

  • Buddhism spread beyond India ; Jainism confined to areas within India

  • Buddhism strongly attacked the varna system unlike Jainism

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Causes of second urbanisation

  • Increased agriculture

  • Increased trade

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Guilds/ Shrenis

Places that provided training to craftsmen and also acted as banks that gave them grants

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Types of urban centres

  • Political/administrative town - Rajagriha, Hastinapur, Kausambhi and Champa

  • Market towns - Ujjain

  • Religious towns - Kashi and Vaishali

  • Coastal towns - Sopara, Arikamedu, and Tamralipti

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Location of market towns

Located in places where there is an agricultural surplus that could be used for exchange

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Taxila

  • 30km north-west from Islamabad

  • Excavated by John Marshal

  • Administrative centre under the Mauryans and Indo-Greeks

  • In the trade route between north and west India.

  • Trade with Roman Empire

  • Evidences of Buddhist monasteries

  • Had a distinct style of Gandhara Art under the Kushanas

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Ashtadhyayi

A book of grammar written by Panini

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Jataka stories

Shows a glimpse of city and village life

Includes stories about the life of Buddha

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Punch-marked coins

Silver and copper coins that has symbols and designs with a separate punch mark

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Three types of villages

  • First category - People from different castes and communities headed by a villageman or grambhojaka

  • Second category - craft villages with craftmen

  • Third category - Border villages merged with forests with hunters and gatherers

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Northern Black Polished Ware

Glossy and shiny pottery found in north India used by the richer class

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Gandhara School of Art

A style of art that has images of Buddha and Boddhisattvas with distinct Greek features

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Rudradaman

  • A prominent ruler of the Sakas

  • His military achievements are highlighted in the Junagadh inscriptions

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Kushanas

  • Belonged to the Yueh-chi tribe

  • Minted large amount of coins that was received in turn of protecting traders using the Silk route

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Kanishka

  • Most popular ruler of the Kushanas

  • First capital was at Purushapura

  • Mathura School of Art flourished under Kanishka

  • Organised the fourth Buddhist council

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Buddhacharita

A biography of Buddha that was composed by Ashvagosha who was a poet in Kanishka’s court

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Satavahanas

  • Powerful rulers in the Deccan

  • Capital - Pratisthana

  • Prominent ruler - Gautamiputra Satakarni

  • Constant rivalry with Sakas

  • Lords of Dakshinapatha - trade route to South India

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Pandyas

  • Ruled areas around Madurai

  • Port city - Korkai

  • Trade contacts with Roman empire

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Cholas

  • Known as Cholamandalam

  • Near Kaveripatnam

  • Capital - Uraiyur

  • Famous ruler - Karikal

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Cheras

  • Ruled over Kerala and parts of Tamilnadu

  • Also known as Keralaputras

  • Capital city - Vanji

  • Muziris - Chief port

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Economy of kingdoms in South India

  • Trade with the Roman Empire

  • Exported gold, precious stones and spices

  • Pepper was seen as black gold by the Romans

  • Wealth collected during military conquering

  • Poets were rewarded with precious stones, gold, animal and fine cloth.

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Silk Route

  • Chinese - first to invent the production of silk 7000 years ago

  • Carried silk on horsebacks, camels and by foot to sell them.

  • Path followed by the Chinese to sell silk - Silk route

  • Silk was expensive as it included traveling over dangerous and rough terrains to deliver it

  • Kushanas controlled them in India as they protected the traders from robbers

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Maritime Trade

  • Started in Mauryan empire

  • Trade through sea routes

  • Link with Roman empire and Han empire

  • Imports - Brocades, coral, frankincense, and wine

  • Glass objects from Rome

  • Exports from India - Spices, precious stones and yarn

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Chandragupta I

  • First important ruler of the Gupta empire

  • Expanded territories through favorable marriages

  • Married the Lichchhavi princess - Kumaradevi to enhance prestige

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Samudragupta

  • Son of Chandragupta I

  • Had an aggressive policy of expansion

  • Information about his conquests in Prayaga Prasashti inscriptions at Allahabad

  • Described as Kaviraja as he was a lover of poetry and music and his coins show him playing the veena

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Prayaga Prasashti

  • 33 line eulogy( in praise) composed by Harisena.

  • Defeat of nine rulers of Aryavarta

  • The defeat of 12 rulers from Dakshinapatha

  • Homage from frontier kingdoms

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Chandragupta II

  • Title - Vikramaditya

  • Extended territory through marriage alliances and conquests

  • He was also known for his respect and love for poets

  • Kalidasa was part of his court

  • Succeeded by Kumaragupta and Skandagupta

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Central administration of Guptas

  • High sounding titles such as maharajadhiraja, chakravarti and paramesvara

  • King assisted by a council of ministers

  • Assisted by the chief justice/mahadandanayaka

  • Minster for taking care of army - Sandhi-Vigrahika

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Provincial administration of Guptas

  • Empire divided into bhuktis/provinces

  • Provinces adminsitered by uparikas

  • Districts administered by vishayapatis

  • No capital punishment was given

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Taxation under the Guptas

  • Land revenue was the main source

  • Fines

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Decentralisation under the Guptas

  • Land was given to military leaders called samantas who supported the king, and collected revenue from these lands.

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Harshavardana

  • Information fro Harshacharita- a biography written by Banabhatta from his court

  • Accounts from the Chinese traveller Hiuen-Tsang

  • Throne in Thaneshwar

  • Wrote three plays in Sanskrit - Ratnavalli, Priyadarshika and Nagananda

  • Gave a special grant to Nalanda University

  • Initially a worshipper of Shiva and later converted to Buddhism

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Pallavas

  • Mentioned in Samudraguptas’ pillar

  • Area of dominance - Kanchipuram

  • Attacked by Guptas, Cholas and Khalabhras

  • Prominent rulers - Simhavishnu

  • Constant rivalry with Chalukyas

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Chalukyas

  • Largely influential in Raichur Doab

  • Capital - Aihole

  • Pulakesin I, Pulakesin II , Kirthivarmal I

  • Aihole inscription - composed by Ravikriti - court poet of Pulakesin II

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