mastering biology chapter 3

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<p>hydrocarbon</p>

hydrocarbon

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Biology

9th

105 Terms

1
<p>hydrocarbon</p>

hydrocarbon

an organic compound containing only C and H

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2

isomer

compounds with the same molecular formula but different 3D structures

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3

structural isomer

differs in covalent bonds between atoms

<p>differs in covalent bonds between atoms</p>
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4

geometric isomer

differs in the arrangement of atoms around a double bond

<p>differs in the arrangement of atoms around a double bond</p>
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5

enantiomer (stereoisomer)

molecules that are mirror images of each other

<p>molecules that are mirror images of each other</p>
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6

carbon chain (skeleton)

-varies in length -varies in number & location of double bonds -can be branched/unbranched -can be arranged in rings

<p>-varies in length -varies in number &amp; location of double bonds -can be branched/unbranched -can be arranged in rings</p>
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7

functional group

-atoms attached to a carbon skeleton involved in chemical reactions -determines the characteristics of a molecule -compounds that contain them are usually hydrophilic

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8

hydroxyl group

-O bonded to H -needs to be bonded w/ a carbon skeleton

<p>-O bonded to H -needs to be bonded w/ a carbon skeleton</p>
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9

alcohol

organic compound that contains a hydroxyl group (i.e. ethanol)

<p>organic compound that contains a hydroxyl group (i.e. ethanol)</p>
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10

carbonyl group

-C double bonded to O -can be located within or at the end of a carbon skeleton -works w/ carboxyl groups to make sugars

<p>-C double bonded to O -can be located within or at the end of a carbon skeleton -works w/ carboxyl groups to make sugars</p>
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11

aldehyde

organic compound in which the carbonyl group is attached at the end of a carbon chain

<p>organic compound in which the carbonyl group is attached at the end of a carbon chain</p>
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12

ketone

organic compound in which the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom within the carbon chain

<p>organic compound in which the carbonyl group is attached to a carbon atom within the carbon chain</p>
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13

carboxyl group

-C double bonded to O and single bonded to a hydroxyl -acts as an acid by donating H+ -found in all proteins

<p>-C double bonded to O and single bonded to a hydroxyl -acts as an acid by donating H+ -found in all proteins</p>
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14

carboxylic acid

organic compound that contains a carboxyl group

<p>organic compound that contains a carboxyl group</p>
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15

amino group

-N bonded to two H atoms -acts as a base by picking up H+ from a solution to become ionized (NH3+) -found in all proteins

<p>-N bonded to two H atoms -acts as a base by picking up H+ from a solution to become ionized (NH3+) -found in all proteins</p>
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16

amine

compound containing an amino group

<p>compound containing an amino group</p>
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amino acid

-Organic compounds containing a central C bonded to an H atom, amino group, carboxyl group, and R group -R-group that projects from the backbone makes each amino acid unique -Building blocks of proteins

<p>-Organic compounds containing a central C bonded to an H atom, amino group, carboxyl group, and R group -R-group that projects from the backbone makes each amino acid unique -Building blocks of proteins</p>
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18

phosphate group

-P doubled bonded to O single bonded to 3 O atoms -acts as an acid, losing H+

<p>-P doubled bonded to O single bonded to 3 O atoms -acts as an acid, losing H+</p>
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19

phosphate

-organic compound containing phosphate groups -involved in energy transfers (ATP)

<p>-organic compound containing phosphate groups -involved in energy transfers (ATP)</p>
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20

sulfhydryl group

-S bonded to H -groups can react & form a crosslink that stabilizes the structure of many proteins

<p>-S bonded to H -groups can react &amp; form a crosslink that stabilizes the structure of many proteins</p>
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21

thiol

organic compound that contains a sulfhydryl group

<p>organic compound that contains a sulfhydryl group</p>
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22

methyl group

-C bonded to 3 H atoms -hydrophobic -nonpolar

<p>-C bonded to 3 H atoms -hydrophobic -nonpolar</p>
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23

methylated compounds

-organic compound that contains a methyl group -component of DNA that affects gene expression

<p>-organic compound that contains a methyl group -component of DNA that affects gene expression</p>
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24

monomer

subunit that serves as a building block of polymers

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25

polymer

-many monomers linked together by covalent bonds -caused by dehydration

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26

dehydration synthesis (condensation reaction/polymerization)

-covalently bonding monomers to form a polymer through the removal of H2O (H and OH) -energy can be stored when the bonds are formed

<p>-covalently bonding monomers to form a polymer through the removal of H2O (H and OH) -energy can be stored when the bonds are formed</p>
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27

hydrolysis

-chemical reaction in which bonds between molecules in a polymer are broken down by the addition of H2O to form monomers (H and OH) -energy is released when the bonds are broken

<p>-chemical reaction in which bonds between molecules in a polymer are broken down by the addition of H2O to form monomers (H and OH) -energy is released when the bonds are broken</p>
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28

macromolecule (organic compound)

-giant molecule (polymer) formed by the joining of smaller molecules (monomers) through dehydration -contains carbon

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nucleic acids

-contains C, H, O, N, P -polymer made of nucleotide monomers -sequence of nucleotides carries information

<p>-contains C, H, O, N, P -polymer made of nucleotide monomers -sequence of nucleotides carries information</p>
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DNA

-Polymer that stores hereditary information -Single molecule contains 2 polynucleotides -Double helix formed by the twisting of 2 complimentary strands of nucleotides -Backbone consists of alternating sugars and phosphates -Strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between pairs of nitrogenous bases

<p>-Polymer that stores hereditary information -Single molecule contains 2 polynucleotides -Double helix formed by the twisting of 2 complimentary strands of nucleotides -Backbone consists of alternating sugars and phosphates -Strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between pairs of nitrogenous bases</p>
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nitrogenous base pairs

-adenine w/ thymine (uracil in RNA) -cytosine w/ guanine

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RNA

-Polymer that synthesizes proteins -Consists of a single-stranded polypeptide -Contains ribose -Uracil instead of thymine -Copied from a DNA molecule -Shorter than DNA

<p>-Polymer that synthesizes proteins -Consists of a single-stranded polypeptide -Contains ribose -Uracil instead of thymine -Copied from a DNA molecule -Shorter than DNA</p>
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nucleotide

-building block of DNA/RNA -consists of a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose/ribose), nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group

<p>-building block of DNA/RNA -consists of a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose/ribose), nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group</p>
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polynucleotide

-polymer of nucleotide monomers -backbone consists of alternating sugars and phosphates -bases are attached to the sugars

<p>-polymer of nucleotide monomers -backbone consists of alternating sugars and phosphates -bases are attached to the sugars</p>
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gene

-String of nucleotides -Sequence of nucleotides determine the primary sequence of amino acids of the produced protein -Contains the information necessary to build protein/molecule of RNA -Carries information that is then translated into the amino acid sequence of proteins

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<p>chromosome</p>

chromosome

-long DNA molecule with part of or all of the genes -genes are separated by junk DNA

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<p>genome</p>

genome

complete collection of an organism's chromosomes and the genes within them

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38

carbohydrates

-contains C, H, and O in a 1:2:1 ratio -used as fuel for cellular work (form of immediate energy) -form of glucose -hydrophilic

<p>-contains C, H, and O in a 1:2:1 ratio -used as fuel for cellular work (form of immediate energy) -form of glucose -hydrophilic</p>
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39

membrane carbohydrates

-Marks the cell's identity -Controls the cell's activities -Protein made by other cells can bind to them

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40
<p>glucose</p>

glucose

-Monosaccharide that serves as a building block for many polysaccharides -Oxidation in cellular respiration is a source of ATP -Carbon skeleton can be used to build many organic molecules

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<p>glycosidic bond</p>

glycosidic bond

covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate w/ another group

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<p>monosaccharide</p>

monosaccharide

-monomer of carbohydrates -simple sugar -similar 1:2:1 ratio -contain numerous hydroxyl groups and a carbonyl group -carbon skeletons range from 3 to 7 C's

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polysaccharide

-long chains of sugars -monosaccharides joined together via dehydration -act as identification tags on cell membranes

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44
<p>lactose</p>

lactose

-disaccharide (sugar) consisting of glucose and galactose

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45
<p>sucrose</p>

sucrose

-disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose -circulates in plant sap -obtained from sugar cane and sugar beets to form table sugar

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<p>maltose</p>

maltose

-disaccharide consisting of 2 glucose -produced by the digestion of starch in a sprouting seed/intestine of an animal

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<p>cellulose (fiber)</p>

cellulose (fiber)

-polysaccharide that composes plant cell walls -provides structural support -most abundant organic compound -indigestible without the help of bacteria

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<p>chitin</p>

chitin

polysaccharide that provides structural support in animal cells

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49
<p>starch</p>

starch

-polysaccharide found in the chloroplast -stores energy -made of glucose

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50
<p>glycogen</p>

glycogen

-polysaccharide that stores energy in animal cells by linking sugar molecules with insoluble grains -found in muscles & liver

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51
<p>lipids</p>

lipids

-contains C, H, and O -3 fatty acids joined to 1 glycerol -stores energy between C and H bonds -hydrophobic

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52

plaque

lipid-containing deposit in a blood vessel

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53
<p>triglyceride (fat molecule)</p>

triglyceride (fat molecule)

-Glycerol bound w/ 3 fatty aids -Varies in the length of hydrocarbon tails (4 to 26 C's) -Varies in the number and location of double bonds (0 to 4) -Stores energy in spherical droplets -Contains more energy per gram than any other biological fuel

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54
<p>ester bond (ester linkage)</p>

ester bond (ester linkage)

joins fatty acid tails to a glycerol backbone

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<p>glycerol</p>

glycerol

-consists of three carbons -each carbon is bonded to a hydroxyl and H

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phospholipid

-glycerol bound to 2 fatty acid tails and phosphate group -forms cell membrane -hydrophobic fatty acid tails face inward, mingling together -hydrophilic heads face outward, exposed to aqueous solutions on both sides of the membrane

<p>-glycerol bound to 2 fatty acid tails and phosphate group -forms cell membrane -hydrophobic fatty acid tails face inward, mingling together -hydrophilic heads face outward, exposed to aqueous solutions on both sides of the membrane</p>
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<p>steroid</p>

steroid

-lipid consisting of 4 fused rings -differ in what is attached to the rings -act as chemical messengers

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anabolic steroid

-steroids used to stimulate muscle growth -can prevent bone growth -synthetic variants of testosterone

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59
<p>cholesterol</p>

cholesterol

-Steroid that is an important component of animal cell membranes -Acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other steroids -Ratio to other membrane lipids impacts the ability of the cell & substances that are allowed to cross the membrane

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<p>vitamin D</p>

vitamin D

steroid that aids in calcium & phosphate metabolism

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<p>estradiol</p>

estradiol

steroid female sex hormone produced by the ovaries

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<p>testosterone</p>

testosterone

steroid male sex hormone produced by the testes

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63

wax

-dense, waterproof lipids -saves water in plants and animals by coating their surfaces

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cuticle

waxy outercoating of plants

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<p>lipoprotein</p>

lipoprotein

-Lipid bound to proteins/phospholipids -Phospholipids & proteins line the surface (they have parts that are compatible with water) -Fats and steroids occupy the interior -Helps lipids move through the body

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<p>fatty acid</p>

fatty acid

-Consists of a carboxyl group and long hydrocarbon chain -Tails contain only nonpolar (C-H) bonds -Hydrophobic

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unsaturated fatty acid

-Contains at least one double bond (kink) in their hydrocarbon chain -Reduced number of H's -Usually found in vegetable oils -Liquid at room temperature -Stimulates the breakdown and secretion of cholesterol.

<p>-Contains at least one double bond (kink) in their hydrocarbon chain -Reduced number of H&apos;s -Usually found in vegetable oils -Liquid at room temperature -Stimulates the breakdown and secretion of cholesterol.</p>
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saturated fatty acid

-Contain only single bonds in their hydrocarbon chains -2 to 3 H's on each C -Found in animal fats -Solid at room temperature -Impede the excretion of cholesterol -Stimulate cholesterol synthesis in the liver

<p>-Contain only single bonds in their hydrocarbon chains -2 to 3 H&apos;s on each C -Found in animal fats -Solid at room temperature -Impede the excretion of cholesterol -Stimulate cholesterol synthesis in the liver</p>
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kink

-Formed by double bonds -Prevents fatty acids from packing tightly -Keeps them liquid at room temperature

<p>-Formed by double bonds -Prevents fatty acids from packing tightly -Keeps them liquid at room temperature</p>
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70

trans fat

-unsaturated fat formed during hydrogenation of saturated fat -contain fewer double bonds -linked to health risks (i.e. heart attacks)

<p>-unsaturated fat formed during hydrogenation of saturated fat -contain fewer double bonds -linked to health risks (i.e. heart attacks)</p>
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71

hydrogenation

process of adding hydrogen to double bonds

<p>process of adding hydrogen to double bonds</p>
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proteins

-contains C, H, O, N, sometimes S -polymer of amino acids -made from varying combinations of 20 amino acids -consists of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific structure

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primary structure

-Linear string of amino acids that forms the backbone of the polypeptide chain -Determined by genetic info

<p>-Linear string of amino acids that forms the backbone of the polypeptide chain -Determined by genetic info</p>
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secondary structure

-Local patterns or folds of a polypeptide chain between amino & carboxyl groups -Caused by interactions between R-groups

<p>-Local patterns or folds of a polypeptide chain between amino &amp; carboxyl groups -Caused by interactions between R-groups</p>
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alpha helix

coiling of polypeptides

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beta-pleated sheet

folding of polypeptides

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tertiary structure

-Overall globular (3D) shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain -Hydrophobic R-groups cluster in the center -Positively/negatively charged R-groups can form ionic bonds -Polar R-groups can form hydrogen bonds -Sulfur-containing R-groups can form covalent bonds

<p>-Overall globular (3D) shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain -Hydrophobic R-groups cluster in the center -Positively/negatively charged R-groups can form ionic bonds -Polar R-groups can form hydrogen bonds -Sulfur-containing R-groups can form covalent bonds</p>
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78

quaternary structure

-2 or more individual polypeptide subunits -not present in all proteins

<p>-2 or more individual polypeptide subunits -not present in all proteins</p>
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79

denaturation

-the unraveling of a protein, losing its structure and function -the separation of 2 strands of DNA -caused by changes in pH, salt concentration, or temperature

<p>-the unraveling of a protein, losing its structure and function -the separation of 2 strands of DNA -caused by changes in pH, salt concentration, or temperature</p>
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80
<p>transport proteins</p>

transport proteins

-embedded in cell membranes -moves sugar molecules & other nutrients to cells -carries molecules from place to place

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<p>structural proteins</p>

structural proteins

-Shape cells -Anchor cell parts -Bind cells together, making organized units

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<p>signal proteins</p>

signal proteins

-Hormonal proteins that coordinate an organism’s activities by acting as signals between cells -Bind to receptor proteins that can then relay messages in a cell

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<p>sensory proteins</p>

sensory proteins

-proteins that detect environmental changes (i.e. light) -respond by emitting or producing signals that call for a response

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<p>storage protein</p>

storage protein

-proteins that stockpile building components in cells that can be used to make other proteins -storage proteins in seeds provide raw materials used by the developing plant

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<p>contractile protein (motor proteins)</p>

contractile protein (motor proteins)

-Protein that move parts of the cell -Works together in muscle cells to move a whole animal

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<p>gene regulatory protein</p>

gene regulatory protein

-Protein that bind to DNA in specific locations -Control whether or not genes will be read -Allows cells to become specialized for different functions & respond to changes in their surroundings

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<p>antibody</p>

antibody

defensive proteins of the immune system that bind to pathogenic invaders, marking the foreign objects for destruction

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<p>enzyme</p>

enzyme

-Organic protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by it -Catalyze and regulate chemical reactions -Only work on specific substrates -Lower activation energy -Reusable

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active site

binding site between an enzyme and its substrate

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lock and key hypothesis

the active site of an enzyme is specifically shaped to fit only 1 specific substrate.

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91

lactase

enzyme that only works on the substrate lactose

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92

peptide bond

-covalent bond between an amino group of one subunit w/ a carboxyl group of another subunit -formed by dehydration

<p>-covalent bond between an amino group of one subunit w/ a carboxyl group of another subunit -formed by dehydration</p>
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93

disulfide bridge (bond)

-covalent bond between S atoms of 2 cysteine amino acids -stabilizes structure of proteins

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covalent bond

formed by the equal sharing of outer-shell electrons

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95

ionic bond

-formed by the transfer of electrons -1 atom loses an electron to form a positive ion & the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion -held together by charge differences

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96

hydrogen bond

-formed by the attraction between H+ of one water molecule & O- atom of another water molecule -holds water molecules together -form, break, and reform with great frequency because they are weak

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polar bond

-formed by the unequal sharing of electrons -one atom is positively charged and the other is negatively charged

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98

nonpolar bond

-formed by the equal sharing of electrons -no charge separation

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99

cohesion

-sticking together of 2 like molecules (H2O) -caused by the attraction of opposite charges (polarity)

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adhesion

-sticking together of 2 unlike molecules (H2O & another substance) -caused by the attraction of opposite charges (polarity)

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