Social Psychology: Chapter 1-3 Review

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Social Psychology

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84 Terms

1

Social Psychology

Scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to one another

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2

Social Thinking

Self perception, Perception of others, What we believe, Judgements we make, Our Attitudes

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3

Social Influence

Culture, Pressures to conform, Persuasion, Groups of people

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4

Social Relations

Prejudice, Aggression, Attraction & Intimacy, Helping

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5

Beliefs and Values

Lens through which we view the objective world

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6

Intuition

"Fast and Frugal" judgements; unconscious information processing; the act or faculty of knowing/sensing without the use of rational processes

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7

External factors that shape behavior

Social context, Culture, Personal attitudes/dispositions

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8

Social Neuroscience

interdisciplinary field that explores the neural bases of social and emotional processes and behaviors and how these processes and behaviors affect our brains and biology

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9

Bystander Apathy

the more people who ignores a helpee, the less likely someone is to actually help that person

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10

Sociology

Different from social psych because it studies people in groups not group pressures on the individual

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11

Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency to judge other's negative behavior as due to internal causes but our own negative behavior as due to external forces

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12

Hindsight Bias

The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

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13

Correlational

Naturally occurring relationships among variables, typically with no IV or DV, that provides direction and magnitude of reliable predictions not causality

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14

Experimental

Searches for cause and effect using random assignment, the elimination of extraneous variables and the control of IV to prove causality

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15

Survey Research

Researchers can use the sample data to make inferences about the population

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16

Stratified Random Sampling

Using grouping/strata, researchers get a sample that reflects the percentage of specific groups in the population as a whole

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17

Problems with Survey Research

Sample is often unrepresentative of the population, the question order influences responses, phrasing of questions and response options influences responses

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18

Mundane Realism

The extent to which an experiment is similar to real-life situations

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19

Experimental Realism

The degree to which an experiment absorbs and involves its participants

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20

Deception

A last resort strategy used for socially based research

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21

Demand Characteristics

Cues as to what is expected; tips on what the study is about

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22

Institutional Review Board (IRB)

Group made of different professors and community members to evaluate research proposals involving students

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23

Spotlight Effect

The belief that others are paying more attention to our appearance and behavior than they actually are

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24

Self Image

How you see yourself

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25

Self Concept

Comprehensive evaluation of self and how a person sees, evaluates and feels about themselves

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26

Self Schema

Set of beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information

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27

Self Reference Effect

The tendency for people to better remember information when it has been encoded in reference to the self

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28

Development of the Social Self

The roles we play, the social identities we form, the comparisons we make with others, how other people judge us, & the surrounding culture

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29

Independent Self

Individualistic Cultures; priority given to individual goals

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30

Interdependent Self

Collectivist Cultures; priority given to group goals

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31

When predicting our behavior, we are

Overly Optimistic

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32

Impact Bias

Overestimate the impact of emotion-causing events

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33

Immune Neglect

Underestimate the speed and strength of our psychological immune system

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34

Dual Cognitive Processing

Theory of human cognition that studies interaction between conscious and unconscious thought

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35

Self Esteem

Our sense of self worth, can be based in different socially dependent domains

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36

Bottom-up Self Esteem

Success in specific domains leads to high global self esteem

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37

Top-down Self Esteem

Use general evaluation of self to develop specific view of self

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38

Threats to Self Esteem

Failure, social rejection, upward comparisons, labelling

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39

Terror Management Theory

When people are reminded of their eventual death, it negatively impacts Self Esteem

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40

Narcissism

Inflated sense of self worth, arrogant and often have headline intelligence, attention seeking, low empathy, likely to retaliate if criticized

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41

Headline Intelligence

Intellect that is only skin-deep, not content specific

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42

Self Efficacy

Sense of confidence in our ability to complete a task

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43

Locus of Control

Extent to which we perceive life outcomes as externally or internally controlled

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44

Learned Helplessness

Perceived sense of no control after repeated failures

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45

Characteristics of Learned Helplessness

Constant exposure to failure, modelling, labelling

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46

Self Serving Bias

Tendency to perceive yourself favorably

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47

Better than Average Bias

Type of Self Serving Bias that leads to perception that you are better than the mean

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48

Unrealistic Optimism

Type of Self Serving Bias that has elevated sense of future accomplishments

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49

Defensive Pessimism

Type of Self Serving Bias that anticipates problems and uses one's anxieties to motivate effective action

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50

False Consensus Effect

Type of Self Serving Bias that overestimates how common our opinions and undesirable behaviors are

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51

False Uniqueness Effect

Type of Self Serving Bias that underestimates how common our abilities and successful behaviors are

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52

Self Handicapping

Protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure

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53

Impression Management

The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen

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54

High Self Monitors

People who pay close attention to their own behavior and to others' reactions, adjusting their communication to create the desired impression

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55

Low Self Monitors

People who pay little attention to responses others have to their behavior and act the same across situations

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56

Priming

The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

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57

Embodied Cognition

Bodily sensations prime cognitive preferences and social judgements

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58

Automatic Processing

System 1- Implicit, unconscious, fast, effortless, impulsive

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59

Controlled Processing

System 2: Explicit, conscious, slow, deliberate

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60

Overconfidence Phenomenon

The tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs

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61

Planning Fallacy

The tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task

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62

Confirmation Bias

Tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

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63

Techniques to reduce Overconfidence Phenomena

Obtaining prompt feedback, listing at least one good reason why you're wrong

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64

Heuristic

A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms

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65

Representativeness Heuristic

Presumption that since something belongs to a certain group that it is resemblance of a typical member of that group

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66

Availability Heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

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67

Counterfactual Thinking

Imagining alternative scenarios/outcomes that might have happened but didn't

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68

Illusory Thinking

Search for order in random events (ex full moon causing crime)

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69

Illusory Correlation

Perception of a relationship where none exists

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70

Illusion of Control

Perception that chance events are under our control (ex gambling, superstitions)

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71

Mood

Colors interpretations of current experiences

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72

Perception is influenced by

Beliefs, attitudes, values, preconceptions and expectations

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73

Belief Perseverance

When beliefs remain after discrediting information is present (ex stereotyping and making exceptions)

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74

Misinformation Effect

Erroneous information incorporated into memory (ex did you see the yield sign? versus did you see a sign?)

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75

Backwards Reasoning

When a fact is based on what we now know/believe/feel

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76

Past Attitudes

With attitude change, people say they "felt that way all along" BEFORE the change

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77

Past Behaviors

Recalling more good versus bad past behaviors

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78

Attribution Theory

How people explain behavior of themselves/others

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79

Dispositional Attribution

Spontaneous trait inference is intrinsic to the person

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80

Situational Attribution

Spontaneous inference of behavior is extrinsic of the person

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81

Misattribution

Mistakenly attributing behavior to wrong source (ex they're into me versus they're just being polite)

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82

Actor-observer Perspective

Attribution focus changes based on role: focusing on the individual or the environment

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83

Self Fulfilling

Belief that lends to its own fulfilment

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84

Behavioral Confirmation

Type of self fulfilling prophecy where expectations lead people to behave in ways that confirm existing expectations

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