Macromolecules

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What are the four Macromolecules?

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What are the four Macromolecules?

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids

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The Monomer of Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides (Galactose, Glucose or Fructose)

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The Monomer of Proteins

Amino Acids

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The Monomer of Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides

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The Monomer of Lipids

Glycerol and Fatty Acid Chains (2-3)

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The Function of Carbohydrates

Short-term or immediate Energy Source

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The Function of Lipids

Long-term Energy Source

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The Function of Nucleic Acids

Store and Transmit your Genetic Information

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The Function of Proteins

  1. Controls the Rates of Reactions

  2. Fights Diseases

  3. Forms Cell Structures

  4. Regulates Cell Processes

  5. Transports stuff In/Out of the Cell

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Examples of Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides - Glucose, Fructose Disaccharides Polysaccharides

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monosaccharides

glucose, fructose

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disaccharides examples

sucrose (glucose + fructose) maltose (glucose + glucose) lactose (galactose + glucose)

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examples of polysaccharides

glycogen, starch, and cellulose

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Examples of Lipids

Fats, Oils, Waxes, Lipid Steroids (cholesterol), triglycerides, phospholipids

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Examples of Proteins

Enzymes, Hormones, Antibodies, Hemoglobin, Collagen, keratin

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Examples of Nucleic Acids

DNA and RNA

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organic

a molecule that contains carbon hydrogen bonds

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Four groups of organic molecules

Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids

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1.A. What are the major elements of life?

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen.

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1.B. What properties of carbon explain carbon's ability to different large and complex structures?

Carbon can bond to itself, has 4 valence electrons, causing strong covalent bonds to occur between carbon and another element.

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2.A. Name four groups of organic compounds found in living things.

Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

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2.B. Describe at least one function of each group of organic compound.

Carbohydrates: main source of energy for plants and animals

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proteins: regulation of cellular transportation of materials, cellular processes, formation of structures, and anti-bodies

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lipids: storage of energy

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storage or transmission of genetic information.

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2.C. Why are proteins considered polymers but lipids not?

Proteins have long chains of monomers, but lipids do NOT made up of components that make up a chain.

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3.A. What atoms constitute the compound above?

Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.

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3.B. What class of macromolecule does the compound belong to?

Carbohydrates

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dehydration synthesis

forms polymers and a water molecule

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hydrolysis

Divides a polymer into monomers through the addition of water

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Where do macromolecules get energy?

macromolecules get energy from bonds

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polymer

result of many monomers linking together (protein or peptide and amino acids or polypeptide)

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What makes up proteins?

polymers made of amino acids (50-500 chains long)

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amino acid is also known as a...?

peptide or protein

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What are nucleic acids made up of?

hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus

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monomer

single molecule

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small chemical unit that makes up a polymer

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2 monosaccharides

disaccharide

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Key ideas

-All macromolecules are formed through dehydration synthesis -all covalent bonds -water breaks bonds and gives off energy through hydrolysis

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hydrolysis

Requires water and releases energy Taking molecules apart

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Which is the only macromolecule that isn't a polymer

lipid

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What does "acid" indicate?

hydrogen ion is present

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Elements present in carbohydrates

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen

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Elements present in proteins

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen

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Elements present in lipids

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen

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Elements present in nucleic acids

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus

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Other name for Carbohydrate

saccharides

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monosaccharide diagram of glucose

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disaccharide diagram of sucrose

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polysaccharide diagram of amylose

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amino acid structure

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diagram of saturated

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diagram of unsaturated

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diagram of nucleotide

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Dipeptides

two amino acids joined together by a peptide bond

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Nitrogen bases in DNA

Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine

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polymer and amino acid relationship

Polymer is a protein aka peptide Lots of amino acids linked together

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Triglycerides

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carbohydrate structure

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Saturated

Fatty acid consists of single bonds

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Unsaturated

Fatty acid contains double bonds

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Which macromolecule speeds up chemical reactions?

Protein (enzyme)

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