PLD Midterm Exam

studied byStudied by 31 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

speech

1 / 277

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

278 Terms

1

speech

a verbal or spoken means of communicating

other means of communicating include: writing, drawing, and manual signing

voice quality, intonation, and rate enhance the meaning of the message

New cards
2

language

a socially shared code or system for representing concepts through the use of symbols and rules that govern how they're combined

New cards
3

dialect

considered subcategories of the parent language that use similar but not identical rules; all users of a language follow certain dialectal rules

New cards
4

Do languages stay the same over time?

No; they grow as their respective cultures change

New cards
5

Can languages become endangered?

Yes; the death of languages is not a rare event in the modern world

New cards
6

communication

the exchange of information and ideas, needs and desires, between two or more individuals

a complex, systematic, collaborative, context-bound tool for social action

New cards
7

communicative competence

the degree to which a speaker is successful in communicating, measured by the appropriateness and effectiveness of the message

New cards
8

paralinguistic cues

includes intonation/pitch, stress or emphasis, speed or rate of delivery, and pause/hesitation

New cards
9

intonation

the use of pitch; most complex of all paralinguistic codes and is used to signal the mood of an utterance

New cards
10

pitch

can signal emphasis, asides, emotions, importance of the information conveyed, and the role and status of the speaker

"You're coming, aren't you." (insistent statement, descending intonation) "You're coming, aren't you?" (Question seeking agreement, ascending intonation)

New cards
11

stress

employed for emphasis, often to convey importance and/or attitude

"You WILL clean your room" vs. "I DID clean my room"

New cards
12

rate

varies with our state of excitement, familiarity with the content, and perceived comprehension of our listener

faster = excited slower = bored

New cards
13

pauses

may be used to emphasize a portion of the message or to replace the message

"I...said...no"

New cards
14

metalinguistic cues

includes the ability to talk about language, analyze it, think about it, judge it, and see it as en entity separate from its content or context

helps us judge correctness or appropriateness of the language we produce and receive

learning to read and write depends on this

New cards
15

properties of language

  • a social tool

  • a rule governed system

  • generative

  • reflexive

  • utilizes displacement

  • arbitrary

New cards
16

linguistic competence

a language user's underlying knowledge about the system of rules

cannot measure this directly without the speaker performing in some way (answering questions, making statements, etc.)

New cards
17

linguistic performance

actual usage of linguistic knowledge

New cards
18

language is generative

it is creative and productive, from a finite number of words and word categories, and a finite number of rules

New cards
19

language is reflexive

we can use language to reflect on language, its correctness, effectiveness, and its qualities

New cards
20

language utilizes displacement

the ability to communicate beyond the immediate context

New cards
21

language is arbitrary

there is nothing in word that suggests the object to which it applies

New cards
22

three major aspects of language (Bloom & Lahey)

form, content, use

New cards
23

form

including primarily syntax, morphology, and phonology

New cards
24

content

essentially made up of the semantic components of language - knowledge of vocabulary, objects, events, etc.

New cards
25

use

the realm of pragmatics; consists of the goals or functions of language, the use of context to determine what form to use to achieve these goals, and the rules for what form to use to achieve these goals, and the rules for carrying out cooperative conversations

New cards
26

syntax

rule specific word, phrase, and clause order; sentence organization; and the relationship among words, word classes, and other sentence elements

New cards
27

morphology

the system that is concerned with the internal organization of words

New cards
28

morpheme

smallest grammatical unit, and is indivisible without violating the meaning or producing a meaningless unit

dog = single morpheme, "d" and "og" are meaningless

New cards
29

free morphemes

independent and complete within themselves

ex. "cat"

New cards
30

bound morphemes

grammatical markers that cannot function independently; must be attached to free morphemes or to other bound morphemes

ex. -s, -est, un-, and -ly

New cards
31

prefixes

precede the free morpheme (un-, ir-, pre-)

New cards
32

suffixes

follow the free morpheme (-ly, -er, -ity)

New cards
33

semantics

a system of rules governing the meaning or content of words and word combinations

New cards
34

world knowledge

autobiographical and experiential understanding, and memory of particular events of your past

New cards
35

word knowledge

what you know about the meanings of words; contains word and symbol definitions, is primarily verbal

New cards
36

lexicon

personal mental dictionary or thesaurus

New cards
37

semantic features

aspects of the meaning that characterizes the word

"puppy" has semantic features of "young" and "canine"

New cards
38

selection restrictions

prohibits certain word combinations because they are meaningless or redundant based on the words' semantic features

"a cat kitten"

New cards
39

phonology

rules governing the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sounds and the shape of syllables

New cards
40

phoneme

the smallest unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning

pea vs. sea

New cards
41

phonological rules

govern the distribution and sequencing of phonemes within a language

without these, the distribution and sequencing of phonemes would be random/most likely meaningless

New cards
42

pragmatics

a system that concentrates on the social use of language and on how you use language to achieve your communication goals

the overall organizing aspect of language

consists of:

  • communication intentions and the culturally appropriate way of expressing them

  • conversational principles or rules

  • different type of discourse, such as narratives and jokes, and their construction

New cards
43

pragmatic rules

govern a number of conversational interactions in addition to expression of intent, such as the sequential organization and coherence of conversations, repair of errors, and communication roles

New cards
44

intent

what the speaker hopes to accomplish

New cards
45

sequential organization and coherence of conversations

turn taking, opening, maintaining, and closing a conversation

New cards
46

repair of errors

receiving and giving feedback, and correcting conversational errors (confirming vs. denying)

New cards
47

communication roles

dominant vs. submissive, direct vs. indirect

New cards
48

bilingual

fluent in two languages; uses two languages on a daily basis

true balanced bilingualism, or equal proficiency in two languages, is rare

New cards
49

nonbalanced bilingualism

an individual has a higher level of proficiency in one of the languages

more common

New cards
50

dialectical difference

variations within dialects; often impacted by the following factors:

  • geography

  • socioeconomic status

  • race and ethnicity

  • situation or context

  • peer-group influences -first or second-language learning

New cards
51

dialectical difference related to socioeconomic status

lower SES households use more restricted linguistic systems

New cards
52

dialectical difference related to racial and ethnic differences

racial and ethnic groups can become isolated and a particular dialectal variation may evolve

New cards
53

registers

situationally influenced language variations

depends on the speaker's perception of the situation and the participants, attitude toward knowledge of the topic, and intention or purpose

New cards
54

vernacular variation

a casual, informal, or intimate register

New cards
55

style shifting

the variation from formal to informal styles or the reverse; practiced by all speakers

New cards
56

mallspeak

a spoken dialect that overuses words such as 'like,' 'y'know,' 'whatever;' it is minimalist and repetitive

New cards
57

texting

messaging with a minimalist "code" that you use on your smartphone

New cards
58

Standard American English (SAE)

an idealized version of American English that occurs rarely in conversation; Mainstream American English is used more frequently

New cards
59

African American English (AAE)

relatively uniform dialect used primarily by African Americans

variations occur based on region of the US, SES, gender, and age

New cards
60

linguistic theory

  1. interest in language development represents part of a larger concern for human development

  2. language is interesting and can help us understand our own behavior

  3. language-development studies can probe the relationship between language and thought

New cards
61

psycholinguists

interested in the psychological processes and constructs underlying language

New cards
62

sociolinguists

study language rules and use as a function of role, socioeconomic level, and linguistic or cultural context

New cards
63

behavioral psychologist

minimizes language form and emphasizes the behavioral context of language, such as how certain responses are elicited and how the number of these responses is increased or decreased

New cards
64

speech-language pathologist

may concentrate on disordered communication including the causes of the disorder, the evaluation of the extent of the disorder, and the remediation process

New cards
65

generative/nativist approach

assumes that children are able to acquire language because they are born with innate rules or principles related to the structures of human languages

something innate or inborn guides a child's learning

New cards
66

generative grammar

assumes that natural languages, such as English and Spanish, are similar to formal language such as mathematics

New cards
67

natural languages

characterized by:

  • a unified set of abstract rules that are meaningless themselves and insensitive to the meanings of the elements they combine

  • a set of meaningful linguistic elements that serve as variables in the words

New cards
68

Noam Chomsky

  • generative approach

  • "language acquisition device"

  • "universal grammar"

New cards
69

language acquisition device

Chomsky's belief that children instinctively learn language without any formal instruction; children have a natural need to use language; in the absence of formal language, children will develop a system of communication to meet their needs

all children make the same type of language errors regardless of the language they use

New cards
70

universal grammar

there are certain grammatical rules that all human languages share

New cards
71

generative approach to language learning

to learn a language, each child begins with his or her innate universal grammatical rules and uses those to abstract the structure of the specific language they are learning

acquisition has two components:

  • acquiring all of the words, idioms, and constructions of that language

  • linking the core structures of the particular language being learned to the universal grammar

New cards
72

generative approach theoretical weakness

  • explanations begin with adult language and builds backward

  • fixed or semi-fixed structures like "How's it going?" are not based on abstract grammatical categories but fixed expressions

  • idioms

New cards
73

interactionalist approach

emphasizes the influence of a combination of biological and environmental processes on language learning

interested in language structure, but there is less theoretical commitment to language form and to ages of acquisition

two main interactionalist approaches are: Emergentism and Constructivism

New cards
74

child-directed speech (CDS)

a parent's adapted way of speaking to a child

New cards
75

Emergentism

thinks of language as a structure arising from existing interacting patterns in the human brain

  • our brains seem to naturally seek patterns in incoming information

New cards
76

B.F. Skinner

well-known behaviorist

theorized that parents model language, young children imitate these models, and parents reinforce children for these imitations

New cards
77

Constructionist approach

an Interactionalist usage-based approach that sees language as composed of constructions or symbol units that combine the form and meaning of language through the use of morphemes, words, idioms, and sentence frames

main point: language structure emerges from language use

New cards
78

intention-reading

children attempt to understand the communicative significance of an utterance

New cards
79

pattern-finding

children create the more abstract dimensions

New cards
80

Interactionalist approach theoretical weaknesses

  • does not account for the similarities of language learning and use across children

New cards
81

language learning theory

a conceptual model that attempts to describe how knowledge is acquired, processed, and retained when we "learn"

New cards
82

behavior learning theory

  • learning occurs when new behaviors arise or there are changes in current behaviors

  • this occurs through the association of stimuli and responses

  • stimuli in the environment can cause a reaction and elicit a behavior; responses to this behavior can strengthen or weaken the behavior

  • consequences that follow the behavior and increase it reinforce the behavior

  • consequences that follow the behavior and decrease it punish the behavior

  • B.F. Skinner

New cards
83

operant conditioning

  • children receive "rewards" for using language in a functional manner

  • motivating operations, discriminative stimuli, response, and reinforcing stimuli

  • B.F. Skinner

New cards
84

negative reinforcement

the termination of an unpleasant state following a response

strengthens behavior by stopping or removing an unpleasant experience

New cards
85

positive reinforcement

a response or behavior is strengthened by rewards, leading to the repetition of desired behavior

reward is a reinforcing stimulus

New cards
86

punishment

imposing an aversive or painful stimulus

New cards
87

behavior modification

main principle comprises changing environmental events that are related to a person's behavior

includes token economy and behavior shaping

New cards
88

token economy

a system in which targeted behaviors are reinforced with tokens (secondary reinforcers) and later exchanged for rewards (primary reinforcers)

New cards
89

behavior shaping

the form of an existing response is gradually changed across successive trials towards a desired target behavior by rewarding exact segments of behavior (rewarding all behaviors then slowly becoming selective, etc.)

New cards
90

behavior learning theory theoretical weaknesses

  • Chomsky: parents don't provide good models, children don't just imitate, and parents don't regularly reinforce the child's behavior

  • children cannot possibly imitate all the utterances they would later use

  • imitation fails to explain creative or generative grammar

New cards
91

Cognitivist Learning Theory

  • concerned with the thought process behind the behaviors mentioned; changes in behavior are indicative of that thought process

  • humans don't just respond to stimuli, they process the information contained within; learning occurs through internal processing of incoming information

  • Jean Piaget

New cards
92

Two assumptions of Cognitivists

  • memory is an active and organized processor

  • prior knowledge plays an important role in learning

New cards
93

Jean Piaget

  • children use both assimilation and accommodation to learn language

  • children create mental structures within the mind (schema) and from these schemas, language development occurs

four stages:

  1. sensorimotor (birth to 18-24 months)

  2. preoperational (2-7 years old)

  3. concrete operational (7-11 years old)

  4. formal operational (adolescence to adulthood)

New cards
94

assimilation

  • the process of incorporating new stimuli into an already existing schema (idea); an attempt to deal with stimuli in terms of present cognitive structures

  • the way an organism continually integrates new perceptual matter into existing patterns

New cards
95

accommodation

the process of changing one's schema or create a new schema to adapt to the new environment

New cards
96

sensorimotor stage

  • birth to 18-24 months old

  • infants learn about the world through their senses and actions

  • object permanence (8 months old), self-recognition, deferred imitation, and representational play develop

New cards
97

preoperational stage

  • 2-7 years old

  • acquire the ability to internally represent the world through language and mental imagery

  • can think about things symbolically

  • thinking is dominated by how the world looks

  • animism: non-living objects have life and feelings like a person's

New cards
98

concrete operational stage

  • 7-11 years old

  • think logically about concrete events

  • understand the concept of conversation

  • can mentally reverse things

  • less egocentric and think of how other people might think and feel

New cards
99

formal operational stage

  • 12+ years old

  • concrete operations carried out on things; formal operations are carried out on ideas

  • can deal with abstract ideas

  • follow the form of an argument without having to think in terms of specific examples

  • can deal with hypothetical problems with many possible solutions

New cards
100

Social Constructivist Learning Theory

  • a theory in which knowledge is constructed within social contexts through interactions with a knowledge individual(s)

  • primarily concerned with social knowledge and communication

important elements:

  • experiences are used by the learner to create a model of the social world and the way that it functions

  • language is the most essential system with which to construct that reality

Lev Vygotsky

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 34 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 37 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 104 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 392 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(6)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard129 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard136 terms
studied byStudied by 85 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)