EARTH_SCI_REVIEWER_PT_2

studied byStudied by 14 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Plant materials (wood, agricultural waste, etc.) and animal wastes that can be burned directly as a solid fuel or converted to gaseous or liquid biofuels.

1 / 127

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

128 Terms

1

Plant materials (wood, agricultural waste, etc.) and animal wastes that can be burned directly as a solid fuel or converted to gaseous or liquid biofuels.

Biomass

New cards
2

Fuels, such as biodiesel and ethanol, that are produced from plant and plant wastes and used as alternatives to petroleum-based diesel fuel and gasoline.

Biofuel

New cards
3

Plant materials that are burned for heating, cooking, industrial processes, and generating electricity, such as wood, wood wastes, charcoal, and animal manure.

Solid biomass

New cards
4

A situation where about 2.7 billion people in less-developed countries face a shortage of fuelwood and are forced to harvest wood faster than it can be replenished.

Fuelwood crisis

New cards
5

Biofuels, such as biodiesel and ethanol, that are in liquid form and used as alternatives to petroleum-based diesel fuel and gasoline.

Liquid biofuels

New cards
6

Energy generated by wind turbines in wind farms or wind parks, which is the world's second fastest-growing source of energy.

Wind energy

New cards
7

The movement of water around the Earth's surface and subsystems, driven by the sun's energy, through processes such as evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, runoff, and infiltration.

Hydrologic cycle

New cards
8

The saltiness of water, measured in parts per thousand (ppt), with major sources being weathering and volcanic eruptions.

Salinity

New cards
9

Surface layer (warm, low-density), thermocline (rapid decrease in temperature with depth), and deep zone (uniformly low temperature).

Major ocean zones

New cards
10

Water used at home for various purposes.

Domestic water

New cards
11

Water used in fabricating, washing, processing, cooling, and diluting products in industries.

Industrial water

New cards
12

Water used to grow agricultural plants and sustain livestock.

Agricultural water

New cards
13

Water beneath the Earth's surface that can be carried as runoff or seep into the ground, stored and transmitted in aquifers (bodies of rock and/or sediment with the ability to store and transmit water).

Groundwater

New cards
14

Bodies of freshwater on the Earth's surface, such as lakes, rivers, and streams.

Surface freshwater bodies

New cards
15

Water in the oceans, which make up about 97.5% of the Earth's surface water.

Saltwater

New cards
16

Reservoirs of water that are mostly stored in glaciers in polar regions and high mountains.

Freshwater

New cards
17

Permanent bodies of ice that store freshwater.

Glaciers

New cards
18

Masses of glacial land ice extending over 5000 km^2, found in Greenland, Antarctica, North America, and Scandinavia.

Ice sheets

New cards
19

Soil, rock, or sediment that is frozen for more than 2 consecutive years.

Permafrost

New cards
20

Streams, lakes, and wetlands that store freshwater from rainfall, melting snow and ice, and groundwater flows.

Surface water reservoirs

New cards
21

A moving body of surface water that flows downslope toward sea level because of gravity.

Stream

New cards
22

The land area in which water flows into a particular stream.

Drainage basin or watershed

New cards
23

A stream with considerable volume and a well-defined channel.

River

New cards
24

Large inland bodies of fresh or saline water.

Lakes

New cards
25

Land areas where water covers the surface for significant periods.

Wetlands

New cards
26

A partly enclosed coastal body of water where freshwater from a stream meets saltwater.

Estuary

New cards
27

Freshwater found in the rock and soil layers beneath the surface.

Groundwater

New cards
28

Water-bearing rock layers that hold groundwater.

Aquifer

New cards
29

The total amount of empty spaces in rock, determining the amount of groundwater an aquifer can hold.

Porosity

New cards
30

The ability of rock or sediments to allow water to pass through.

Permeability

New cards
31

The boundary between the zone of aeration and the zone of saturation in groundwater.

Water table

New cards
32

Different types of groundwater sources and features.

Aquifers, artesian wells, and springs

New cards
33

Nutrient enrichment, acid rain, changes in salinity, pathogenic organisms, pesticide contamination, and chemical contaminants.

Factors affecting water quality

New cards
34

Farming practices that can impact water quality.

Agricultural activities that affect freshwater

New cards
35

Activities encompassing planning, developing, distributing, and optimizing water resources.

Water management

New cards
36

A leading authority in setting a global environmental agenda.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

New cards
37

An organization that provides access to safe water and sanitation in developing countries.

Water.org

New cards
38

A company that provides strategies for urban water efficiency solutions.

Miya

New cards
39

An NGO that developed "The Straw" to remove pathogens from water.

WATERisLIFE

New cards
40

Presidential Degree 1586, Republic Act 9275, and The Water Code.

Policies in the PH about water management

New cards
41

The process of breaking down rocks at Earth's surface.

Weathering

New cards
42

The process in which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces without any change in chemical composition.

Mechanical weathering

New cards
43

The repeated cycles of freezing and thawing of ice that cause rocks to break apart.

Frost wedging

New cards
44

The expansion of rocks when exposed to high temperatures.

Thermal expansion

New cards
45

The process in which seawater penetrates crevices in rocks, mostly found in rocky shorelines and arid regions, causing the rocks to break apart.

Salt crystal growth

New cards
46

The action of organisms that contribute to the weathering of rocks.

Biological activity

New cards
47

The erosion or uplift of thick layers of sediments overlying deeply buried rocks, resulting in their removal.

Unloading

New cards
48

The process in which rock materials are changed into other substances.

Chemical weathering

New cards
49

The process in which a solid dissolves in water.

Dissolution

New cards
50

The reaction of water with a mineral to form a new mineral.

Hydrolysis

New cards
51

The combination of oxygen with a mineral to form a different mineral, where at least one of the elements has a higher ionic charge.

Oxidation

New cards
52

The combination of moisture and temperature that affects the rate of weathering.

Climate

New cards
53

The height above sea level, which can make an area more susceptible to weathering.

Elevation

New cards
54

The extent of exposed surface that is subject to weathering processes.

Large surface area

New cards
55

A series that illustrates the relative stability of minerals.

Goldich stability series

New cards
56

The transportation of weathered rocks by water, rivers, wind, gravity, etc.

Erosion

New cards
57

The process in which water carries sediments to different bodies of water.

Water erosion

New cards
58

The process in which light materials like pebbles are carried to different places by wind.

Wind erosion

New cards
59

The process in which a glacier or river of highly compact ice moves downhill, scraping between ice and rock.

Glacial erosion

New cards
60

The vulnerability of soil to erosion caused by factors such as rainfall intensity, soil properties, crop cover, and slope.

Soil erodibility

New cards
61

The composition and arrangement of soil particles that can affect its susceptibility to erosion.

Soil texture

New cards
62

The removal of vegetation by grazing animals, leaving the soil more vulnerable to erosion.

Overgrazing

New cards
63

The removal of trees and vegetation that can contribute to soil erosion.

Cutting of trees/removal of vegetation

New cards
64

The use of these substances can increase the vulnerability of soil to erosion.

Use of pesticides, herbicides, and fuel oils

New cards
65

Measures such as terracing steep terrains, reducing farmland conversion, planting vegetation, using organic fertilizer, and building retaining walls.

Preventing soil erosion

New cards
66

The downslope movement of rock, unconsolidated material, and soil under the influence of gravity.

Mass wasting

New cards
67

When a stream erodes and removes material from a valley wall, causing the slope to weaken.

Stream undercutting

New cards
68

The maximum angle at which an object can rest on an inclined plane without sliding down.

Angle of repose

New cards
69

The absence of plants can lead to slope weakening as roots help hold soil and regolith together.

Lack of plants

New cards
70

The slow, downhill movement of rock or soil.

Creep

New cards
71

A mixture of clay, silt, sand, and rock fragments that flows downhill due to high water content.

Debris flow

New cards
72

A consistency of wet concrete due to high water content, causing water-saturated soil to move downslope.

Mudflow

New cards
73

A type of mass wasting with less water content than mudflow.

Earthflow

New cards
74

The downslope movement of water-saturated soil.

Solifluction

New cards
75

Blocks of material move downhill over a gently curved fracture.

Slump

New cards
76

The sliding of bedrock downslope over a fracture plane.

Rockslide

New cards
77

The rapid, free-falling movement of rocks, which is the fastest type of mass wasting.

Fall

New cards
78

Hazard maps used to identify landslide-prone areas, engineering measures applied before hillslope development, and soft mitigating measures such as information campaigns and early warning systems.

Measures to prevent disasters

New cards
79

Loose solid particles from weathering and erosion, precipitation of minerals dissolved in water, and remains of plants and animals.

Sediments

New cards
80

The measure of how spherical a sediment particle is.

Sphericity

New cards
81

The degree of abrasion shown by the sharpness of the sediment's edges and corners.

Roundness

New cards
82

The degree of uniformity of grain sizes in sediments.

Sorting

New cards
83

The speed at which the medium carrying the sediments is moving, which determines the size of sediments that can be transported.

Velocity of transporting medium

New cards
84

Carried by high-energy or current streams.

Gravel and coarser particles

New cards
85

Transported through wind and wave action.

Sand and finer sediments

New cards
86

Sediments can accumulate on corals, leading to their death.

Effects of sedimentation

New cards
87

A type of pollution caused by an increased amount of suspended sediments and accumulation of fine particles at the bottom of a stream.

Siltation

New cards
88

The uppermost and thinnest layer of the Earth's structure, consisting of continental and oceanic crust.

Crust

New cards
89

The layer below the crust, with the uppermost part and crust making up the lithosphere, and the lower mantle called the mesosphere.

Mantle

New cards
90

The innermost layer of the Earth, composed of iron and nickel, with a liquid outer core and solid inner core.

Core

New cards
91

The heat generated within the Earth's interior through various processes.

Earth's internal heat

New cards
92

The heat left over from the formation of the Earth and extraterrestrial impacts.

Residual heat

New cards
93

The collapse of a cloud of dust that converted gravitational energy into heat energy during the formation of the Earth.

Gravitational contraction

New cards
94

The heat produced by the radioactive decay of unstable elements in the Earth's interior.

Radiogenic heat

New cards
95

The balance between the heat generated in the Earth's interior and the heat released at the surface.

Earth's thermal budget

New cards
96

The process in which solid materials are deposited horizontally after being transported by agents such as water, wind, or ice.

Sedimentation

New cards
97

The layer of the Earth between the crust and the core.

Mantle

New cards
98

The measure of how much light or radiation is reflected by a surface.

Albedo

New cards
99

The process of magma formation and volcanic activity.

Magmatism

New cards
100

Molten rock material produced by partial melting of the mantle and crust.

Magma

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 133 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 57 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 91 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2934 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(10)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard346 terms
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard98 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 221 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard101 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 104 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)