Bn5.005 Worksheets

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Cells

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1

Cells

Tissues are made of:

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Tight

An occluding intercellular junction is

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gap juctions

intercellular junction speciallised for rapid communications is

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epithelial tissue

tissue type that develops from all 3 germ layers

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simple cuboidal epithelia

the type of epithelial tissue is found lining kidney tubules

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psuedo-stratified columnar

epithelial tissue type that goblet cells are found in

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osseous tissue

tissue type that contains calcium phosphate salts and lacunae

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elastic cartilage

the shape of the external ear and nose is maintained by

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forms the tendons of muscles and ligaments of joints

Dense regular connective tissue…

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nervous tissue

tissue type that does NOT regenerate easily

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strain

tearing or stretching of skeletal or cardiac muscle fibres is a

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myofibrosis

replacement of muscle tissue by connective tissues (scar tissue)

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fibrinolysis

process whereby a blood clot is broken down after tissue repair

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gets larger

if a cell hypertrophies, it…

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rule of nines

estimates the surface area of a human body affected by a burn

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mesenchymal cells

stem cells found in the periosteum and bone marrow that can differentiate into many types of tissue cells needed for regeneration and repair is called

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inflammation and haemostasis

first steps in wound healing

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anchoring junction

what type of intercellular junction is a hemidesmosome

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provide structural support and stability to tissues subjected to mechanical stress

function of a hemidesmosome

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nervous tissue

tissue type that arise from Ectoderm

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Muscular and Connective tissue

tissue type(s) that arise from Mesoderm

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Bone

type of connective tissue in osteocytes

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Cartilage

type of connective tissue in Chondroblasts

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Blood

type of connective tissue in Erythrocytes

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Fibroblasts

type of cell that makes collagen in connective tissue

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Goblet cells

type of cell that Secretes mucus in simple columnar epithelia

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Pericytes

type of cell that Regenerates smooth muscle

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Bone Marrow

location for Haematopoietic stem cells

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Surrounding organs such as skin

location for Areolar connective tissue

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Intervertebral discs

location for Fibrocartilage

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Upper Respiratory Tract

location for Pseudo-stratified epithelium

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Spleen

location for Reticular connective tissue

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Heart

location for Cardiac muscle

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Alveoli in lungs

location for Simple squamous epithelium

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squamous

thin, flat, tile-like cells

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Pseudo-stratified

appears to have several layers but all cells are attached to the basement

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Exocrine

glands whose secretions empty through ducts to the epithelial surface

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Simple

composed of a single layer of cells

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to form mesh frameworks

main function of Reticular fibres

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for tensile strength

main function of Collagen

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absorbing shock

main function for Fibrocartilage

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storing fat and energy

main function for Adipose tissue

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Blunt force trauma

physical trauma caused by an object or force striking the body

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Haematoma and broken bones

types of blunt force trauma

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Penetrating trauma

Refers to an injury where an object pierces the skin or body, resulting in an open wound

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Puncture wounds, lacerations, deep tissue damage

types of penetrating trauma

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regeneration

The process of replacing destroyed or damaged tissue with the same kind of cells involves dividing parenchymal cells. Resulting in the restoration of the original structure and function of the tissue without the formation of scar tissue (no scarring)

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parenchymal cells

functional cells of an organ or tissue

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fibrosis

type of tissue repair that occurs when there is damage to the tissue. Involves the replacement of destroyed tissue with dense connective tissue. Resulting in the formation of scar tissue (scarring present)

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  1. Vascular Spasm

  2. Coagulation

  3. Platelet Plug Formation

3 phases of Haemostasis in order

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Open (compound) fracture

type of bone fracture where the broken bone penetrates through the skin

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haematoma

collection of coagulated blood outside a blood vessel but within the body which can be seen under the skin or nails as bruises

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Contusion

collection of coagulated blood specifically referring to bruises than can be seen under the skin or nails but is ALWAYS VISIBLE on the surface of the skin

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Gliosis

formation of scar tissue composed of glial cells in the CNS as a response to damage or injury

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returning interstitial fluid and leaked plasma proteins to the blood

one of the functions of the lymphatic system

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spleen

lymphatic organ’s major job is to destroy work-out red blood cells and return some of the products to the liver

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tonsils

lymphoid tissue found in the pharynx

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Peyer’s patches

lymphoid tissue found in the distal part of the small intestines

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Site where T lymphocytes mature

role of the thymus

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mammary glands

where are Lacteals found in

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lacrimate

term used for lymph present in the lacteals are

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spleen

lymphoid organ that filter blood and not lymph

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characteristics of Lymph nodes

Have more afferent vessels entering than efferent vessels leaving the node, contain lymphocytes and macrophages

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tonsils, the appendix, and Peyer’s patches

Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) includes:

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mechanical and chemical barriers

“first line of defense” in immunity is:

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natural killer cells

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed BEFORE activation of adaptive immunity by ___________

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vasodilation

the redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperaemia caused by

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complement

the antimicrobial protein that forms holes in bacterial cells causing them to burst are

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T cells

Cell-mediated adaptive immunity involves

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Artificial active acquired immunity

Immunity that develops as a result of a vaccination is called

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antibody production

Which one of the following are part of the “third line of body defenses”?

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occurs more rapidly and is stronger than the primary response

The secondary immune response _______

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IgA

the most abundant type of immunoglobin

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neutralization

The process by which antibodies bind to specific sites on toxins to block their harmful effects

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When interstitial fluid and plasma drain into the lymphatic system

How does lymph form?

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Lymphatic ducts

What type of lymphatic vessel empties lymph into the venous system?

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Bone marrow

Becomes major hematopoietic organ

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Bone Marrow

Where B lymphocytes become immunocompetent

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Thymus gland

Where T cells become immunocompetent

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Bone marrow & Thymus gland

The two primary lymphoid organs

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Mediastinum overlying the heart

Location of the thymus

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Is the site where T cells become immunocompetent and of immunological self-tolerance

Function of the thymus

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Upper left abdominal cavity, tucked up behind the stomach

Location of the spleen

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Filters blood and acts as a blood reservoir, removes worn-out blood cells and platelets and other debris

Function of the spleen

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Beneath mucous membranes in which lymphocytes are the predominant cell type; no distinct capsule unlike lymph nodes

Location of the Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)

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Traps and removes bacteria and other foreign materials that have come in contact with the mucosa

Function of the Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)

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Generate “memory” lymphocytes

Function of the Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)

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Lymph nodes

The principle lymphatic organ

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Clustered in the:

Neck (cervical), Armpits (axillary), Groin (inguinal), Popliteal regions

Locations of the Lymph Nodes

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houses many specialised cells

Function of the lymph nodes

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filters lymph before returning it to the blood

Function of the lymph nodes

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Phagocytes

What can be found fixed in lymph nodes?

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B & T lymphocytes

The 2 types of phagocytes that can be found in lymph nodes

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responsible for antibody-mediated immunity

B lymphocytes’ function with regards to activating the third line of defense

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responsible for cell-mediated immunity

T lymphocytes’ function with regards to activating the third line of defense

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Innate

is Non-specific; innate or adaptive?

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Innate

is Antimicrobial proteins; innate or adaptive?

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Adaptive

is Antibodies; innate or adaptive?

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Adaptive

is Specific; innate or adaptive?

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Innate

is Fever; innate or adaptive?

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