bio exam 3

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Uric acid

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Uric acid

Elevated blood levels of this substance can cause gout (or gouty arthritis

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Rheumatoid arthritis

An immune system problem may cause this type of arthritis:

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Aging, obesity, irritation of the joints, muscle weakness, and wear and abrasion

Identify two risk factors for osteoarthritis

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Sprain

forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint that stretches or tears its ligaments but does not dislocate the bones

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Strain

stretched or partially torn muscle or muscle and tendon

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Plantar joints

permit mainly side-to-side and back-and-forth gliding movements

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Hinge joint

movement is primarily flexion or extension in a single plane

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Pivot joint

Movement is rotational.

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Ellipsoidal or Condyloid joint

movements are flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, and circumduction.

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Saddle joint

Movements include flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, and circumduction.

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Ball-and-socket joint

This type of joint is the most versatile as it allows movement in any axis. Movement includes flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, rotation, and circumduction.

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Rheumatoid arthritis

What type of arthritis is an autoimmune disease?

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Gouty arthritis

What type of arthritis is a metabolic disease

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Ball-and-socket joint

What type of joint has the widest range of motion

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Temporomandibular joint

What is the name and type of joint is between the mandible and mandibular fossa of the temporal bone?

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Synovial Fluid in synovial membrane reduces friction by lubricating the joint absorbing shocks supplying oxygen and nutrients to and removing carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes from the chondrocytes within articular cartilage.

Can you think of a body fluid with the consistency of egg white? Also, where do you find this fluid and what purpose does it serve?

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The knee

which synovial joint has 13 bursae sacks

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​​Osteoarthritis

caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints.

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Acute gouty arthritis:

caused by a defect in metabolism that results in an overproduction of uric acid or a reduced ability of the kidney to eliminate uric acid.

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Rheumatoid arthritis

cause is unknown, infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi have long been suspected, none has been proven as the cause

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Bursitis

Joint disorder resulting when Lyme's disease or syphillis is untreated

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Glenohumeral (shoulder) joint/ ball and socket joint

Type of joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity

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Elbow Joint

The olecranon reduces friction when this joint moves

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Knee joint

The prepatella reduces friction when this joint moves

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Glenohumeral (Shoulder) Joint

The subacromial reduces friction when this joint moves

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Knee joint

This joint contains both a lateral and medial meniscus

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Gouty Arthritis

This type of arthritis is the result of EXCESS uric acid in the blood

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Suture

This type of fibrous joint unites the bones of the skull

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Knee menisci

This joint contains articular discs (menisci) of fibrocartilage:

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Synovial joint (The knee joint carries an infrapatellar fat pad)

This joint contains a pad of adipose tissue (fat pad):

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Atlanto-axial

Name the PIVOT joint formed by the odontoid process (dens) of the axis and the atlas

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Elbow, Interphalangeal joints, and Knee joint

Which of the following joints can experience a hyperextension without injury?

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Temporalis

What muscle ELEVATES the mandible

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Orbicularis oculi

What muscle is important for closing the eye

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Orbicularis oris

What muscle closes and protrudes the lips, as in KISSING

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Zygomaticus major

What muscle offers the look of SMILING

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​​Occipitofrontalis

What muscle offers the look of SURPRISE

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​​Temporalis

What muscle is controlled by the TRIGEMINAL nerve?

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Latissimus dorsi

What muscle inserts into the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus

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Trapezius

What muscle has an ORIGIN including C7 and T1 - T12?

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Biceps femoris

What muscle FLEXES the leg at the knee

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Gluteus maximus

What muscle inserts into the ILIOTIBIAL TRACT

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Deltoid

What muscle inserts into the DELTOID TUBEROSITY of the humerus

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Buccinator

this muscle plays an important role in suckling and whistling

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Platysma

this muscle plays an important role in depressing the mandible (OPENING the mouth):

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Zygomaticus MINOR

this muscle plays an important role in SNARLING

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​​Mentalis

this muscle plays an important role in POUTING

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Facial (VII) nerve

cranial nerve that controls Buccinator

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​​Facial (VII) nerve

cranial nerve that controls Platysma

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​​Facial (VII) nerve

cranial nerve that controls Zygomaticus MINOR

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​​Facial (VII) nerve

​​cranial nerve that controls Mentalis

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Latissimus dorsi muscle

muscle sometimes called the "Swimmer's Muscle":

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Trapezius

muscle important for shrugging your shoulders:

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Gluteus maximus

muscle whose insertion includes the iliotibial tract and gluteal tuberosity:

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Splenius capitis

muscle important for rotating the head

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Deltoid

muscle whose insertion includes the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus:

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Sarcoplasmic reticulum

This organelle within the muscle fiber (cell) stores calcium ions until needed for contraction:

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Diaphragm

The origin of this muscle includes the xiphoid process; insertion is the central tendon. Contraction of this muscle leads to increased vertical dimension of thoracic cavity which in turn leads to INSPIRATION (inhalation)

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Myasthenia gravis

This autoimmune disease of muscles leads to progressive muscle weakness and ultimate muscle paralysis

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Accessory (XI) nerve, C2, and C3.

CRANIAL nerve that controls the muscle Sternocleidomastoid

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Mandibular division of trigeminal (V) nerve

CRANIAL nerve that controls the muscle Masseter

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Splenius capitis

What muscle letter is responsible for extending and hyper-extending the head

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Sternocleidomastoid

What muscle letter is responsible for flexing the head as when one prays

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Extension and Flexion

Movements that take place at the elbow

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Elevation & Depression Lateral Displacement Slight Rotation Protraction & Retraction

movements take place at the temporomandibular joint

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Flexion & Extension Abduction & Adduction Internal rotation & External rotation

These movements take place at the shoulder (Glenohumeral) joint

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Arrector pili muscles

This type of muscle controls airway and artery diameter and causes goosebumps

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calcium facilitates the interaction between actin and myosin during contractions

Why is calcium so important for muscle contraction?

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Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Where are calcium ions stored within muscle cells

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Hinge Joints

Flexion and extension is the only type of movement performed at which type of joint

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Epimysium

What is the name of the connective tissue covering of the entire muscle, including the blood vessels and nerves

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Elevated blood levels of uric acid may lead to which disorder

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Inadequate release of calcium ions from the SR Depletion of creatine phosphate Insufficient oxygen

What are three likely contributing causes of muscle fatigue

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Slow Oxidative Fibers

Type of skeletal muscle fiber least likely to experience muscle fatigue

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Skeletal and Cardiac

Two types of muscle tissue with striations

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Slow oxidative (SO) fibers

Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the greatest number of mitochondria

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Fast Glycolytic Fibers

Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the least number of mitochondria

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Fast Glycolytic Fibers

Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the greatest amount of glycogen

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Slow oxidative (SO) fibers

Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the least amount of glycogen

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Fast Glycolytic Fibers

Type of skeletal muscle fiber storing the greatest amount of creatine phosphate

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Slow oxidative (SO) fibers

Type of skeletal muscle fiber storing the least amount of creatine phosphate

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Slow oxidative (SO) fibers

Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the greatest amount of myoglobin

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Fast Glycolytic Fibers

Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the least amount of myoglobin

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Fast Glycolytic Fibers

Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the least number of blood capillaries

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Slow oxidative (SO) fibers

Type of skeletal muscle fiber containing the greatest number of blood capillaries:

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1.Blood vessels 2.Airways 3.Stomach 4.Intestines 5.Urinary bladder 6.Uterus

List six (6) locations in the body where smooth muscle is found:

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Muscular dystrophy

Sex-linked genetic disease that causes skeletal muscles to degenerate:

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Myasthenia gravis

Autoimmune disease that causes progressive muscle weakness

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The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

What is sarcoplasm

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A fluid-filled system of membranous sacs

What is sarcoplasmic reticulum

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Phase of an action potential which has changed the membrane potential to a positive value

What happens to the resting membrane potential when depolarization takes place

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Repolarization refers to the change in membrane potential that returns it to a negative value

What happens to the resting membrane potential when repolarization takes place?

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Elbow and Knee

Flexion and extension is the ONLY type of movement possible at these (pure hinge) joints:

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Pivot

Rotation is the ONLY movement produced at this joint

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Shoulder Hip Wrist

Identify the joints where movement includes circumduction

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Glenohumeral joint

Type of joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity

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Eosinophils

Phagocytic white blood cell that attacks parasitic worms in the body

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Polycythemia

The blood tests Hematocrit and Hemoglobin level may indicate if you have this disorder:

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Neutrophils (60%-70%) Lymphocytes (20%-25%) Monocytes (3%-8%) Eosinophils (2%-4% Basophils (0.5%-1%)

In the order of greatest to least amount, list the five (5) types of white blood cells (leukocytes)

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Histamine

Identify the allergy-related substance released by basophils

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