Chapter 4

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inorganic compounds

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Biology

11th

136 Terms

1

inorganic compounds

do not usually contain carbon -H2O, CO2, salts, bases, and HCl

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2

organic compounds

-contain carbon -almost always contain oxygen and nitrogen -usually contain oxygen and nitrogen -may also contain phosphorous, sulfur, and small amounts of calcium, iron, sodium, chlorine, potassium

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3

60-80% water

how abundant is the inorganic compound water in our body

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4

high heat capacity, high heat of vaporization, polar molecule, important reactant, cushioning

properties of water

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5

high heat capacity

absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before its temperature changes appreciably

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6

high heat of vaporization

to evaporate, water requires large amounts of heat energy to disrupt the hydrogen bonds that hold water molecules together

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7

polar molecule

water molecules are formed by polar covalent bonding, which results in water molecules exhibiting a positive end/pole, and a negative end/pole -also gives water the ability to dissolve many substances (universal solvent)

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8

important reactant

water in many chemical reactions -hydrolysis -dehydration synthesis

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9

cushioning

water forms a cushion (due to hydrogen bonding) around certain body organs to protect them from physical trauma -ex: amniotic fluid which surrounds fetus in mother's body and plays a role in protecting mother

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10

latent heat affect

releases energy slowly for all energy taken in

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11

adhesion

water will stick to other things

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12

cohesion

water will stick to another water molecule

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13

salts

-ionic compounds consisting of cations other than H+ and anions other than OH- -most abundant are ____ containing Ca++ and PO4^3- -others include Na+, K+ (important for nerve impulses) and Fe^3+ which forms part of hemoglobin molecule that transports oxygen within red blood cells

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14

heme

makes Fe^3+ a hemoglobin when put with red blood cells

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15

affinity

Fe is attracted to carbon monoxide, oxygen, carbon dioxide

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16

electrolytes

substances that conduct electrical current while in solution -all salts are these

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17

parabolic chamber

increases atmospheric pressure then releases it slowly

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18

acids and bases

ionic compounds that dissociate in water to yield either H+ or OH-

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19

acids

yield H+ in water -have a sour taste -proton donors

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20

bases

yield OH- in water -have a bitter taste -proton acceptors

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21

neutralization

when acids and bases are mixed they chemically react to form a salt and water -exchange reaction -if hydrogen donates an electron, it becomes H+ (cation because of positive charge), then is naked proton because that was its only electron

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22

pH

the relative concentration of hydrogen/hydroxide ions in a solution

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23

pH scale

used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions -runs from 0-14 -low pH corresponds to high hydrogen ion concentration (importance of pH in blood and delivery of oxygen to tissue) -high pH is when alkaline neutralizes acidic body

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24

7.35-7.45

normal blood pH range

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25

electroneutral (always shares electrons), four valence shell electrons, can form chainlike molecules and ring structures

3 reasons why carbon is important

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26

biosynthetic organic compounds

organic compounds made in the bodies of living things -carbohydrates -lipids -proteins -nucleic acids

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27

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

make-up of carbohydrates

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28

C:H:O 1:2:1

ratio of carbohydrates

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29

Cn(H2O)n

formula of carbohydrates

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30

monosaccharide

one sugar carbohydrate

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31

oligosaccharides

few number of sugars carbohydrate chain

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32

polysaccharides

many sugars carbohydrate

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33

monosaccharides

-simple sugars -3-7 carbons

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34

glucose

-main sugar metabolized by the body and used for energy -common monosaccharide -aka: dextrose, bland

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35

fructose

-converted to glucose by the liver when consumed -common monosaccharide -aka: fruit sugar, sweet/sugary

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36

galactose

-not normally found in nature, but combines with glucose to form lactose (milk sugar) -common monosaccharide -bland

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37

oligosaccharides

-short chain carbohydrates that consist of from 2-10 monosaccharides (30-70 carbons) linked together by covalent bonds -broken down by digestion into simple sugars

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38

disaccharide

when two monosaccharides combine

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39

sucrose

glucose and fructose; disaccharide

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40

lactose

glucose and galactose; disaccharide

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41

maltose

glucose and glucose; disaccharide

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42

polysaccharides

-most complex type of carbohydrate -aka: glycans -long chain of glucose units (300-1000)

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43

starch

highly branched polysaccharides

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44

glycogen

-animal starch -stored in skeletal muscles and liver

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45

cellulose

unbranched (long chain) polysaccharide -insoluble in water -can not be digested -can be called roughage/fiber -stimulate peristalsis- wavelike contractions that move food through the digestive system

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46

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

make up of lipids -sometimes nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous too

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47

H:O is greater than 2:1

ratio of lipids

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48

fats (neutral lipids), phospholipids, steroids, waxes

types of lipids

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49

fatty acids

-building blocks of lipids -carbon chains of varying lengths with an acid group attached at one end

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50

saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated

types of fatty acids

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51

saturated fatty acid

all available carbon bonds are filled with hydrogen atoms

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52

unsaturated fatty acid

-not all available carbon bonds are filled with hydrogen atoms -one or more double bonds exist in the carbon chain

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53

saturated fatty acid

solid at room temperature because they are packed together

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54

unsaturated fatty acid

fatty acid where double bond allows the fatty acid chain to break easier, is better for you

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55

polyunsaturated fatty acid

more than one double bond in the fatty acid chain

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56

ester linkage

joins acid and alcohol (carboxyl group of fatty acid and glycerol) together and creates a water molecule

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57

cis fatty acid

-hydrogens are all on the same side of the double bond of unsaturated fatty acid -more easier to break

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58

trans fatty acid

-hydrogens are both up and down on unsaturated fatty acid chain

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59

cis fatty acids

-protects us from inflammation/swelling -lowers cholesterol levels -omega 3's (double bond after 3rd carbon in chain) -have kink so that enzyme can break down easier -important for nice hair, reproductive issues, healthy bones, and protection from heart disease

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60

trans fatty acids

-hydrogenated artificially -bad for you -associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease -rarely occur naturally -enzymes have trouble binding with them and breaking them down -remain solid in the body -go into blood stream and clog coronary arteries

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61

neutral lipids (fats)

-comprised of glycerol molecule and 3 fatty-acids -most abundant lipids in the body -important sources of energy reserve when oxidized through respiration -protects deeper organs -stored in adipose cells

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62

neutral lipids (fats)

medical community calls them triglycerides

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63

saturated fats

-neutral lipid -aka: animal fats -solid at room temperature -hard to digest and raises blood cholesterol levels -not essential to health -found in some plant foods (coconut, coconut oil, palm oil) -packed tight- no kinks

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64

unsaturated fats

-neutral lipid -aka: oils -liquid at room temperature -monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids -have kinks (double bonds)

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65

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorous

makeup of phospholipids (elements)

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66

glycerol, 2 fatty acids, phosphate group

makeup of phospholipids (parts)

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67

phosphate group

head of a phospholipid and is polar (hydrophilic)

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68

fatty-acid chains

make up the phospholipid tail and are nonpolar (hydrophobic) -nonpolar attracts other nonpolar

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69

micelle

what do phospholipids form when in water

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70

lipid bi-layer (phospholipid bilayer)

principle components of cell membranes

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71

steroids

flat molecules formed from four interlocking rings (steroid nucleus) attached to a fatty-acid chain

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72

1 cyclopentane ring and 3 cyclohexane rings

what makes up the steroid nucleus

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73

cholesterol

most important steroid

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74

cholesterol

-in all cell membranes -enters body through diet -produced by the liver -keeps the phospholipid bilayer fluid -needed for digestion -used to make vitamin D and some hormones (sex hormones, cortisol, estrogen, etc.)

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75

proteins

most abundant biosynthetic organic compounds in cells

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76

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

makeup of proteins -sometimes sulfur, phosphorous, iron -50% of organic matter in the body

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77

amino acids

building blocks of proteins

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78

amino acids

-distinguished by its R group -20 different -bonded together in proteins by peptide bonds

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79

peptide bonds

-bond amino acids together in proteins -specialized covalent bonds

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80

hair and nails, blood, brain and nerves, enzymes, cellular construction workers, antibodies, cellular messengers, muscles

what proteins can help/affect

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81

alpha carbon

-central carbon where everything else is based -at least one hydrogen attached -beginning carbon

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82

aromatic

ringed structure of amino acid

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83

22

technical number of different amino acids, but only 20 are used in constructing proteins

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84

protein structure

can range from as little as 50- thousands of amino acids in length

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85

peptide bonds

formed by dehydration synthesis between carboxyl group of one amino acid (the OH) and the amine group of another (the H)

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86

primary structure

-a protein's amino acid order -proteins don't usually exist in this form -not functional

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87

secondary structure

two types that make up this protein structure are alpha helix and beta-pleated sheet

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88

alpha helix

-spiral- shaped protein structure -formed by primary structure coiling

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89

beta-pleated sheet

-fan-folded shaped protein structure -linked side by side with hydrogen bonds -primary polypeptide chains do not coil

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90

tertiary structure

-full 3-D folded protein structure -biologically active form -proteins must achieve at least this form to function

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91

fibrous and globular

types of tertiary structure

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92

fibrous

-aka: structural protein -have extended rope-like structure -NOT water soluble -ex: collagen (found in bones, cartilage, tendons, keratin)

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93

globular

-aka: functional protein -compact, somewhat spherical shape -water soluble -generally non-structural enzymes

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94

quaternary structure

-two or more tertiary structures bonded together -looks like congealed clump of pasta -biologically active form -some proteins (hemoglobin- globular and collagen- fibrous)

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95

water-loving

what amino acids will stay near the surface of protein

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96

water-fearing

what amino acids will be buried in the protein's core

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97

denature

when a protein loses its 3-D shape

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98

denature

-protein is no longer able to perform physiological roles -hydrogen bonds are weak and easy to break -can be caused by environmental changes, such as high temperature -loss of 3-D shape means loss of function

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99

fibrous

stable structural proteins

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100

globular

not stable proteins

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