Anatomy 1 final exam review

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Helicotrema

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Helicotrema

End of cochlea where scala vestibuli & scala tympani conjoin

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Malleous, Incus, Stapes

Order of 3 ossicles of the ear

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  1. helicotrema 2. oval window

Low pitch sound will stimulate taste cells closer to the...& high pitch will stimulate hair cells closer to the …

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a smaller quantity

higher volume sounds stimulate a larger quantity of hair cells meanwhile quieter volumes will stimulate… Hair cells

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Supine

A person laying face up's position is...

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Thoracic

Body cavity that contains upper organs

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epithelial tissue covers the outside

Does epithelial tissue cover the inside or outside

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false epithelial tissue is avascular

True or false: epithelial tissue is vascular

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simple, stratified and pseudo stratified

what are the three different terms for number of layers of a epitheleal tissue

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squamous cuboidal and columnar

what are the different shapes of epithelial tissue

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<p>Where is the line pointing to&amp; what 2 meninges pull away to form it</p>
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<p>Where is the line pointing to&amp; what 2 meninges pull away to form it</p>

Where is the line pointing to& what 2 meninges pull away to form it

Fax cerebri s the periostea dura & meningeal dura split to form it

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stratified squamous

which tissue type can be a keratinized or nonkeratinized

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Olives

Info is sent from the spinal cord to the cerebellum from which area of the medulla oblongata

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Posterior, anterior & inferior

3 horns of lateral ventricles

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Cerebral aqueduct

What connects the third & fourth ventricle of the brain

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Medulla oblongata, descending

Pyramids are found in the...of the brain & contain... Tracts to the spinal cord

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Decussation of pyramids

One side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body muscles, this is due to...

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Pons

Sleep center for sleep, respiratory center & communication from the cerebrum to cerebellum ( via pontine nuclei) is in which part of the brain?

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2 superior colliculi for visual reflexes & 2 inferior colliculi for hearing

The tectum in the midbrain contains 4 nuclei - what are they?

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Cerebellar peduncles. superior peduncle in the midbrain, middle peduncle for the pons and inferior peduncle for the medulla oblongata

Each section of the mid brain has... Which send info from that section to the cerebellum

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Cerebellum

Arbor vitae & folia are the tree branch looking white matter & folds of the..

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Cerebellum

The vermis,, primary fissure, and flocculonodular lobe can be found in the...

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Flocculonodular lobe: balance Vermis: gross & fine motor coordination Cerebella hemisphere: fine motor coordination

Match the cerebella region with its function: flocculonodular lobe, vermis & cerebella (lateral)hemisphere. functions: gross motor coordination, balance and fine motor coordination

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True

True or false: thalamus is grey matter

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subthalamus: subthalamic nuclei control motor function

section of diencephalon inferior to thalamus, ascending and descending nerve tracts and controlling motor function

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epithalamus

which portion of diencephalon contains the habenula (visceral and emotional response to odor) and pineal gland (melatonin and puberty

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infundibulum

stalk of hypothalamus connecting it to pituitary gland

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the hypothalamus contains several regions that control bodily functions and they are so tightly packed together the stimulation of one region may effect another

reason why our emotions can have an impact on hunger and thirst

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cerebral cortex and cerebral medulla

outer layer of grey matter of the cerebrum is the … and the white matter is the …

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parietal lobe

which lobe of the cerebrum controls sensory info, blood pH and touch and pressure

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association fibres connect the same hemisphere, projection fibres connect a hemisphere to the spinal cord and commissural fibres connect the 2 different hemispheres

where do the different fibre tracts in the cerebral medulla go? Association fibres, commisural fibres and projection fibres

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Hypoglossal: swallowing & speech

Functions of cranial nerve XII and what its name

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Vagus (x)

This cranial nerve's motor function is swallowing & voice production

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GI control, respiration & lower heartrate

Vagus nerve's pm functions

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Glossopharyngeal

Which cranial nerve's sensory function is to monitor swallowing muscles

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Trigeminal V

Cranial nerve involved in chewing food

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Occulomotor III

Cranial nerve involved in focusing eye

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Hypoglossal XII

Cranial nerve involved in moving tongue

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Trigeminal v

Cranial nerve responsible for feeling a tooth ache

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Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone

The olfactory nerve passes through which plate of which bone?

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True: potassium leak channels or are more numerous than sodium leak channels oh, hence why three sodium ions move out of the cell while only two potassium ions move into the cell

True or false: potassium leak channels or are more numerous than sodium leak channels

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  1. Number of open channels 2. Size of ions 3. Number of gated channels

What are the 3 factors contributing to a membranes permeability

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Proteins

The plasma membrane is impermeable to these large negatively charged molecules

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Graded/local potential Action potential

2 types of electrical signals/ potentials

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Graded/local potentials

Which type of electrical signal only communicates over short distances and uses ligand and mechanical channels

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Action potentials

which type of electrical signal communicates over short and long distances and uses voltage gated channels

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potassium channels open and sodium channels close. this means that sodium can no longer move into the cell. Potassium can now move freely out of the cell following its chemical gradient this means that a positive charge from potassium is leaving the cell causing it to become more negative therefore re-polarizing.

Repolarization occurs due to______channels opening and ________channels closing

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potassium

after potential is caused by________channels staying open too long. letting the ion leaving the cell.

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the sodium potassium pump

following after potential what system brings the membrane potential back to resting

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No, suprathreshold

in an absolute refractory period______ stimulus will begin another action potential however during the relative refractory period, a______ stimulus will begin another action potential.

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Frequency

stimulus strength is determined by______of action potentials

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Slower

Colder axons will transmit signals faster or slower

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type a nerve fibre

motor neurons have the fastest nerve fibre type. what is it?

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electrical synapse

Proteins called connexons connect smooth muscle cells and spread an action potential between those cells in which type of synapse

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enzymatic degradation

one way for a neurotransmitter to be removed is through __________, where acetylcholinesterase breaks apart acetylcholine

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norepinephrine gets brought back into the pre synaptic terminal by a transporter and is either packaged back into a vesicle or broken apart into other molecules

how does removal of a neurotransmitter via uptake by neuron or glial cells work

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intervertebral foramina

spinal nerves exit the vertebrae through…

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2

The actual spinal cord only runs until L… but spinal nerves still continue past that

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filum terminale

The pia mater that anchors down the spinal cord at the bottom is the…

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conus medullaris

the inferior end of the spinal cord is called the…

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denticulate

…..ligaments anchor spinal cord laterally (hint: teeth of spinal cord)

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lumbosacral enlargement

the cervical and ……. enlargements are there to accommodate the neurons of upper and lower limbs in the spinal cord.

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false: the spinal cord has 3 of each, dorsal lateral and ventral columns and horns.

true or false: the spinal cord is divided into 2 horns and 2 columns

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central canal

middle of spinal cord that contains CSF and is continuous with ventricles of brain

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true: this is because the ventral (motor)and dorsal (sensory) roots merge together to form a spinal nerve

true or false: spinal nerves have ALL both sensory and motor functions

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anterior/ ventral

autonomic motor neurons exit spinal cord through the __________ root

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There are 8 cervical spinal neves. the first exits above c1 and the last below c7

how many cervical spinal nerves are there and where do they exit?

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4 pairs of spinal nerves exit sacral foramina

how many pairs of spinal nerves exit the sacral foramina?

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one pair of coccygeal nerves

How many pairs of coccygeal spinal nerves are there

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endoneurium, perineurium and perineurium

what are the protective covering layers of a spinal nerve? (hint: thing endo peri epi)

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dorsal ramus

which branch of the spinal cord innervates deep back muscles and some connective tissue?

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ventral rami

which rami form the plexuses of the spine?

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cervical, brachial, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal

name all of the spinal plexuses

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the brachial plexus

which spinal plexus supplies the axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, ulnar and median nerves?

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obturator and femoral

what are the 2 main nerves that the lumbar plexus supplies?

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tibial and common fibular nerve

the sciatic nerve (L4 to S4) is made of the ________ and _________ ___________ nerves

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dual innervation

when the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system reach the same organ

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excitatory

in the motor division of the PNS, the autonomic division creates excitatory and inhibitory responses while the somatic division only creates ___________ responses

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lateral

autonomic neurons begin in the spinal cord in the _______ horn

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autonomic ganglion

before going to an organ, the autonomic neuron must first synapse at the

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collateral/ prevertebral ganglia and trunk/chain ganglia. collateral ganglia are closer to organ.

2 types of ganglia the preganglionic neuron might synapse with in the sympathetic nervous system. and which one is closer to the effector organ

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adrenal medulla

sympathetic axons that pass through the chain AND collateral ganglia go straight to the

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sympathetic nerve

sympathetic axons that synapse with chain ganglia can either exit the spinal nerve to the skin of the neck, trunk and limbs or it can exit the ___________ nerve to the heart and lungs

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it passes through the chain ganglion and synapses at the collateral ganglion.

what is the route of the sympathetic axon that exits splanchnic nerve to the abdominipelvic organs.

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