Chapter 8

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encoding

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Tags and Description

Psychology

36 Terms

1

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaning.

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2

storage

the process of retaining encoded information over time

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3

retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

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4

parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.

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5

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

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6

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten

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7

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

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8

working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

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9

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"

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10

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

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11

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

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12

implict memory

retention independent of conscious recollection

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13

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

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14

echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

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15

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

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16

mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

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17

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

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18

testing effect

enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information

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19

shallow processing

encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words

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20

deep processing

encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention

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21

hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

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22

flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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23

long-term potentiation

an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

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24

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

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25

encoding specificity principle

the idea that cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it

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26

mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood

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27

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last (a recency effect) and first items (a primacy effect) in a list

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28

anterograde amnesia

an inability to form new memories

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29

retrograde amnesia

an inability to retrieve information from one's past

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30

proactive interferance

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

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31

retroactive interference

the backward-acting disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

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32

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

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33

reconsolidation

a process in which previously stored memories, when retrieved, are potentially altered before being stored again

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34

misinformation effect

when misleading information has corrupted one's memory of an event

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35

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined

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36

deja vu

that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.

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