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Elizabeth crowned queen

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  • portraits always painted to create her image as strong, powerful and young

  • propoganda

  • weren’t accurate (hid that she had chickenpox or an signs of age)

  • helped share her image and people kept a portrait of her to show loyalty

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1559, religious problems

  • fear of excommunication

  • fear that Mary QoS may want claim to the thrown

  • King Phillip 2nd of Spain

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The religious settlement

Act of supremacy

Act of uniformity

Royal injunctions

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1559 Act of supremacy

  • Made Elizabeth head of church (supreme governor) and above the pope

  • All important officials had to swear an oath to Elizabeth as head of church or they would be imprisoned (refuse 3 times = execution)

  • High commissioner ensure changes put in place

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1559 Act of uniformity

  • Protestant book of common prayer to be used in all churches

  • Bible in English

  • Decorations allowed in church

  • Clergy had to wear vestments and allowed to marry

  • Recusants had to pay 1 shilling fine for every absence

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People who refused to go to church (compulsory Sunday church)

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Puritan view on via media (middle way)

  • Puritans weren’t happy as they believed churches should be simple; no decorations

  • Also didn’t believe in hierarchy in church

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1559 royal injunctions

  • Clergy had to teach royal supremacy and reject pope’s authority

  • Also had to identify Recusants and ensure local JPs fined them

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The act of exchange 1559

Allowed Elizabeth to take buildings and land from the church and force bishops to lend her land - made the gentry and nobility loyal to her as she would reward them with favourable leases on these lands

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The Episcopacy

Elizabeth appointed protestant bishops in churches to replace catholic bishops that refused to take the Oath of Supremacy

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1563, 39 articles of faith

Laid down the beliefs of the Church of England

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1568 Mary queen of Scot’s arrives in England

  • Mary forced to leave France after death of king Francis 2nd her first husband

  • Had to flee Scotland after unsuccessful attempt to reclaim Scottish throne as well as the death of her second husband lord Darnley

  • scotland also protestant

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1569 revolt of the northern earls

  • 2 influential Catholic earls (Charles Neville and Thomas Percy) planned to overthrow Elizabeth and replace her with Mary QoS who would marry the Duke of Norfolk (Elizabeth’s cousin)

  • Elizabeth sent an army to crush the revolt and the rebels fled to Scotland

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1570 pope excommunicates Elizabeth in the papal bull

  • called upon catholics to remove Elizabeth from throne

  • Gave catholics permission to plot against her

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1571, ridolfi plot

  • Roberto Ridolfi led a plot that indirectly included Mary QOS, the Duke of Norfolk, Phillip 2nd and the pope

  • Spanish army invasion and would kill Elizabeth; then Mary QOS would marry Duke of Norfolk and become queen

  • Discovered by William Cecil and spy master Sir Francis Walsingham

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1583, throckmorton plot

  • Jesuit priest, Francis Throckmorton, was a messenger between Mary QOS and the Spanish Ambassador

  • French forces, funded by Spanish and Papal money, invade England

  • Discovered by Elizabeth’s secret service

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1584, Bond of Association

If the queen were murdered, parliament would punish the murderers

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1585, Spain

Spain declared war and began to build a naval fleet

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1586, Babington plot

  • Anthony Babington planned to overthrow Elizabeth with help of Spanish and replace her with Mary

  • Discovered by Walsingham who found letters written in code between Mary and Babington about progress of the plot

  • Mary directly involved

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February 1587

Mary Queen of Scots executed

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Privy Council

  • Sir William Cecil - Secretary of State and closest advisor to Elizabeth

  • Robert Dudley - Earl of Leicester (rumoured to have affairs with queen)

  • Sir Christopher Hatton - lord chancellor

  • Sir Francis Walsingham - in charge of the secret service and uncovered most plots against Elizabeth

  • Cecil and Dudley were rival as Elizabeth’s most trusted advisor

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lord lieutenant

  • nobility/wealthy landowners

  • reported to the privy council about their area and supervised JPs

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Justices of peace

  • gentry

  • administrated poor relief and the job gave them power and status (not paid but felt it was their duty)

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Parish constable

farmers/tradesmen who were appointed several duties and were unpaid for a year

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  • parliament only met when when queen called it (parliament only met 13 times during Elizabeth’s reign and asked for money in all of them)

  • queen only called parliament for: pass acts, get advise or support or when she needed money

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Freedom of speech

MPs had freedom of speech but weren’t allowed to discuss her personal life, religion, foreign policy

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Housing: Nobility

they had the latest features: walls covered in tapestries and paintings, remodelled houses from medieval designs for Queen’s progresses, great hall made to eat in, sleep in, and entertain in

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Housing: Gentry

  • they copied nobels and also renovated their homes with glass windows, stairs and upper floors

  • now had separate quarters for servants

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Housing: Poor

  • floor made of earth and timber walls with a thatched roof and basic furnishing

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Fashion: Nobility

  • men: outfits made of expensive materials such as silk, linen and velvet

  • women: expensive jewellery which advertised their wealth

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Fashion: Gentry

  • fashion used as a demonstration of power, status and social standing

  • adopted fashion sense from nobility

  • their outfits were the same as nobility but without the expensive jewellery and threads

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Fashion: Poor

  • had simple clothing and normally had limited amount of clothes

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impotent poor

people unable to work due to age or some other restriction (in need of poor relief)

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able-bodied poor

those capable of working and unwilling to find a job

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poor relief

a series of acts to help regulate the relief of poor (was kept unchanged for 200 years)

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1598, Act for the relief of the poor

  • work found for able-bodied poor

  • poor children taught trade/craft

  • compulsory poor rate

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1601, Act for the relief of the poor

  • made 1598, poor law permanent

  • government realisation that they had responsibility to help poor

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causes of poverty

  • rising population (2.7 million in 1540s, 4.1 million in 1601)

  • inflation

  • bad harvests (especially in 1596-7 which increased inflation)

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Popular entertainment: Rich

  • Hunting

  • Archery

  • Dancing

  • Music

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Popular entertainment: Poor

  • Hawking

  • Dancing

  • Bowls and football

  • Playing cards

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Cruel sport

  • bullbaiting

  • cockfighting

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Development of Theatres

  • Strolling players would tour the country and perform plays in front of townsfolk

  • wealthy landowners often had private showings (indicates popularity)

  • authorities feared spread of disease and criminal activity

  • 1572, law passed banning strolling players to perform without a license

  • 1576, actor James Burbage built 1st theatre called ‘the theatre’ and was successful so more theatres built

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1572 strolling players

a law passed banning strolling players from performing without a license

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Actors in theatre

  • all male actors so had to be multi-functional

  • had to sing, dance and play intruments

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  • ‘golden age’ of English drama

  • Christopher Marlowe - wrote a famous play that taught audience not to sin or mingle wit devil

  • William shakespeare - wrote a variety of genres unlike other playwriters

  • Queen was passionate lover of theatre and became a patron

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Support for theatre

  • cheap so attracted all classes

  • queen passionate lover and became patron

  • Nobels frequently went and new plays became a part of the social calendar

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opposition of theatre

  • authorities concerned about maintaining law, order and spread of disease

  • puritans found theatre the work of the devil as it distracted from prayer and encouraged sinful behaviour

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Reasons for the armada

  • Dutch revolution in Netherland

  • English attacks in Spanish Main (1577, Francis Drake stole £140,000 worth treasure in Spanish Main)

  • Mary QoS’s execution (last hope of a catholic monarch in England gone)

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1566, war in Netherlands

  • Dutch Protestants in the Netherlands rose in rebellion against Catholic rule from Spain

  • 1567, Philip of Spain sent 10,000 troops to Netherlands (burnt over 1,000 Protestants to death)

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Elizabeth’s reaction

  • before 1585: gave unofficial support (supplied them with weapons and money)

  • after assassination of William the silent 1584: singed a treaty with Dutch protestants to protect and help them (Treaty of Nonsuch)

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The Spanish Armada: plan

  • planned to sail to calais and pick up Parma’s troops from Netherlands

  • cross to Kent in barges

  • march to London along with British catholics

  • Elizabeth surrenders and Catholicism restored

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April 1587

Drake attacked Spanish fleet at Cadiz which delayed armada by a year

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February 1588

Admiral in charge of armada died and replaced with Duke of Medina

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The Spanish Armada: reality

  • Spainish set sail to Calais in a crescent formation but Parma’s army delayed and vulnerable

  • 7th august, English set alight to 8 old ships and drifted them to where Spanish had anchored which forced them to break crescent formation

  • 8th august, The battle of Gravelines: 3 Spanish ships lost, 1000 Spaniards killed and no English ships lost, only 50 English killed (turning point)

  • 9th august, wind changed direction and Spanish sailed into North Sea around Scotland and Ireland and lost fleet in storms

  • only 67 ships returned to Spain

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results of the armada

  • war with Spain continued for a decade

  • English continued to support Dutch protestants against Spain

  • English sailors continued to attack Spanish Main and steal treasure

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Vestments controversy, 1566

  • Archbishop of Canterbury issued rules on how to conduct services and the wearing of vestments

  • many puritan priests refused as believed to be similar to catholic outfits (threatened Elizabeth’s position as Supreme Governor)

  • Puritan priests that refused rules were removed from their position (37 puritan priests lost their jobs for refusing vestments)

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1579, John Stubbs Pamphlet

Puritan Stubbs wrote a pamphlet which criticised the queen for marriage talks with Duke of Anjou (Catholic, French king’s brother)

He was imprisoned for 18 months and had his hand cut off

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1571, Walter Strickland proposed a bill

Puritan MP Strickland proposed a bill asking to ban vestments, a new common prayer book and more

Elizabeth closed parliament before Strickland could have his ideas discussed and the bill was not heard of again

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1576, Peter Wentworth complained MPs not given Freedom of Speech

  • Puritan MP Wentworth complained MPs not allowed to discuss what they wanted in parliament and accused queen of abusing her power

  • He was imprisoned in the Tower of London for a month and Elizabeth closed parliament down

  • Elizabeth issued instructions that Parliament not allowed to discuss religious matters without her permission

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