Lab 10 - Cetartiodactyla and Perrisodactyla

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Certartiodactyla

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Tags and Description

42 Terms

1

Certartiodactyla

Even-toed ungulates - Paraxonic Unguligrade

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2

Perissodactyla

Odd-toed ungulates - Mesaxonic Unguligrade

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3

Gut Fermentation

Uses microbial communities to break down plant matter using anaerobic fermentation

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4

Rumination or Foregut Fermentation

  • Involves a 4-chambered stomach

  • Allows the animal to eat plant matter and then regurgitate it and redigest it later (called cud)

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5

Hindgut Fermentation

  • Single chambered stomach

  • Occurs further in the gut, in the large intestine

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6

What family has horns?

Family Bovidae

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7

What family has antlers?

Family Cervidae

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8

Horns

  • Bony core with keratin sheath

  • not shed

  • unbranches

  • found in both males and females in most species

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9

Antlers

  • shed and regrown each year

  • made of bone

  • covered in skin ("velvet") during the growing season

  • usually branched

  • almost never on females

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10

What species are antlers found on in females in Cervidae?

Caribou

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11

What is velvet?

Skin that covers antlers in Cervidae

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12

What group has unbranched antlers?

Muntjacs

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13

Suborder Ruminantia

Ruminants

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14

Ruminantia skull traits

  • Males frequently have head ornamentation/weaponry

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15

Ruminantia Teeth

  • An incisiform lower canine -> 3 incisors and 1 incisiform canine

  • Large diastema (gap) between incisors/canine and cheek teeth

  • Selenodont cheek teeth

  • Upper incisors usually reduced or absent

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16

Ruminantia post-cranial skeleton

  • Unguligrade

  • Paraxonic

  • Cannon bone

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17

Ruminantia soft tissue

  • 4 chambered stomach

  • foregut fermentation

  • regurgitation of food (cud)

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18

Bovidae

true antelopes; cattle; oxen; sheep; goats

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19

Bovidae Features

  • Horns -> not shed and not forked

  • No antorbital vacuity (indent below the orbital)

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20

Cervidae Features

  • Antlers -> forked and shed

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21

Cervidae

deer: reindeer; moose or elks; muntjacs; roe deer

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22

Odocoileus hemionus

Mule deer

  • Deep antorbital vacuity (Indent near orbital)

  • Forked antlers

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23

Odocoileus virginianus

White-tailed deer

  • shallow antorbital vacuity (indent near orbital)

  • Single beam antlers with small ofshoots

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24

Antilocapridae

comprising only the pronghorns

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25

Antilocapra americana

Pronghorn

  • pronghorns -> forked and only the outer sheath is shed

  • Neither horns nor antlers

  • fast

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26

Order Perissodactyla

Odd-toed ungulates

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27

Perissodactyla

nonruminant ungulates: horses; tapirs; rhinoceros; extinct forms

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28

Perissodactyla - Skull

  • Elongated rostrum

  • Lacrimal bone has a process that projects into the orbit

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29

Perissodactyla Teeth

  • Lophodont cheek teeth

  • Large diastema between incisors/canines and cheek teeth

  • Upper and lower incisors present in some, missing in others

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30

Perissodactyla lacking incisors

Rhinoarotidae

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31

Perissodactyla that has incisors

Equidae and Tapridae

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32

Perissodactyla Postcranial Skeleton

  • Mesaxonic -No baculum

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33

Perissodactyla Soft Tissue

  • Simple stomach

  • Hindgut fermentation in the enlarged cecum

  • No gall bladder

  • Testes scrotal or inguinal

  • Bicornuate uterus

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34

Equidae

horses; asses; zebras; extinct animals

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35

Equidae - Features

  • Males have canine

  • Upper incisors

  • Huge diastema

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36

Domestic

A genetically distinct lineage of animals that have developed adaptations to live in human care

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37

Wild

A lineage of animals that has not adapted to human care; compatibility with humans has not been a significant selective pressure

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38

Tame

A wild animal that has become accustomed to humans and has a reduced fear response

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39

Feral

A domestic animal that has lived away from humans and is now fearful of humans

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40

Refers to species + genetics

Domestic and Wild

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41

Refers to populations/individuals

  • behavior

Tame and feral

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42

Why are Ruminantia more successful in grasslands than Perissodactyla?

  • Better adapted to feeding on grasses because of rumination/foregut fermentation

  • Better ornamation for defense

  • able to chew and digest later (digest on the move)

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