Host Midterm Prep

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39 Terms

1

New Hampshire

________ has a Bureau of Weights and Measures to regulate measurements.

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2

Yeast

________ is a mixture of flour and water.

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3

faraway stars

Glass was used to help make telescopes to view ________ and planets, in astronomy.

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4

Columbian Exposition

The 1893 ________ or the Worlds fair was a humongous fair in Chicago that was used to compete against Europes fairs.

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5

Syria

________ is in the Middle East on the Mediterranean.

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6

Co2

It eats bacteria and gives off carbon dioxide (________) and alcohol.

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7

Bureau of Weights and Measures

The ________ also deals with a lot measurement complaints about measurement models, such as gas.

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8

Stonehenge

________ was built during the paleolithic times.

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9

percentage

The ________ represents the amount of cocoa solids in the bar of chocolate.

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10

bread

The ________ is kneaded to help develop the gluten in the ________.

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11

Glass

________ could be used in math by making different shapes out of ________ and calculating the effect of light rays on the ________.

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12

Columbian Exposition

It was called the ________ in celebration of the 100th anniversary of Columbus "discovering "America.

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13

Math

particularly Calculus

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14

Art

specifically Color Theory

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15

Primary Effect

clear, cheap, transparent, colorless glass

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16

Secondary Effect

Grind and polish precision lenses

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17

Tertiary Effect

Telescope, Microscope, Binoculars, Eyeglasses

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18

Why did we watch Cast Away ? What does it have to do with the history of science and technology?

The main character in Cast Away was trying to find resources to help him get back to his home from the island. Finding resources to help you do something is an important part of the history of science and technology.

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19

What do you remember about the giant timeline we made. Was there anything interesting about how the events were spaced out through time?

From around the 1700’s to the 1900’s there were way more inventions made than anytime else. There were so many inventions that there wasn’t enough space to write them all. These events might have been caused from secondary or tertiary effects of each other.

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20

What does time have to do with using an astrolabe or a sextant?

You needed to know the time in order to use a astrolabe or a sextant.

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21

Why wouldn’t pendulum clocks work onboard a ship?

The waves in the water bodies on which the ship was travelling on, would disturb the rocking of the pendulum clock.

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22

Why was it so important to know what time it was at sea?

In order to know your location at sea you needed to know the time, because it was required for using an astrolabe or a sextant. These devices had three values; time, location, and position of stars. You would need two of the three values to then use the device to figure out the third one.

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23

What was the primary effect of having an astrolabe or a sextant?

People would be able to tell their position on the earth

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24

What were the secondary effects of having an astrolabe or a sextant?

The secondary effects were the fact that most army officers were aristocrats and they didn’t know what they were doing, which then caused more naval officers to get trained and educated especially to use a sextant. Another secondary effect was that you needed to know the exact time to use a sextant which then developed exact time keeping clocks.

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25

What was the tertiary effects of having an astrolabe or a sextant?

Navy officers become in charge of math, science, and astrology.

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26

What is yeast? What does it eat? What does it give off? Why is that important?

Yeast is a mixture of flour and water. It eats bacteria and gives off carbon dioxide (Co2) and alcohol. This is important because the alcohol and carbon dioxide will help make fluffier bread out of the yeast. The bread is kneaded to help develop the gluten in the bread. When this bread is made, the yeast will no longer contain alcohol.

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27

What are the three things that you should bring to HOST everyday?

Host Notebook Host sketchbook Pencil

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28

What was important about the Spanish coins, “Pieces of Eight”? What are some secondary and tertiary effects of them?

The Spanish “Pieces of Eight” became the new Spanish currency. A secondary effect was that after the discovery of the silver in Potosi, more people were send to mine for them. The tertiary effects are that some families lost their main providers and many people died from pneumonia because of the high altitudes of the Silver Mountain. Spain also entered inflation, and became poor because they had too much wealth.

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29

What was useful about the Imperial measurements that the British used before they switched to the metric system? What were some problems with it?

Since at that time, British controlled about one-third of the world, in order to trade with them you needed to know the Imperial measurements. Some problems with these measurements were that they weren’t very easy to remember or to convert.

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30

What do we know about Stonehenge? What don’t we know about it?

Stonehenge was built during the paleolithic times. We don’t know very much about the statue like who built and why they built it. But Stonehenge does show the position of the sun and the solstices, so maybe it was used to show the time of day? We don’t really know.

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31

Why have Mrs. Breault and I made such a big deal about hyperbole ? Why might it be important in life? Why might it be useful to be able to identify it?

Using hyperbole can help you convince people if, for example, you want people to buy products that you made. It’s important to identify hyperbole because people might use it to exaggerate a bit too much, and it might get you fooled.

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32

When clear glass could be reliably made in the 1600’s, the following scientific disciplines changed the way we saw the world within a very short time: Astronomy Microbiology Cartography (map-making) Math - particularly Calculus Optometry Art - specifically Color Theory Why?

Glass helped advance all these areas of study. Glass was used to help make telescopes to view faraway stars and planets, in astronomy. In microbiology, glass was used to make microscopes to view very small objects like molecules. Glass helps create satellites and drones that would roam above cities to collect information about the structure of places, and then use this to create maps, cartography. Glass could be used in math by making different shapes out of glass and calculating the effect of light rays on the glass. Glass was a huge advancement in optometry because glass was used to inspect people eyes and then make lens to improve their sight. Glass also affected color theory because with shapes like glass prisms, when light shines through the prism shape, it gets divided into many different colors.

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33

How did understanding the solstices help Eratosthenes calculate the circumference of the earth?

Eratosthenes knew that a city called Seine, which was directly south of Alexandria was on the tropic of cancer. On the tropic of cancer, at noon on the summer solstice, the sun was directly above. So at noon on the summer solstice he put a stick on the ground in Alexandria and measured the angle of the shadow cast from the sun. Eratosthenes then figured out that the angle was about a measure of 7.2 degrees, which meant that if there were two sticks put on the ground, one in Alexandria and one in Seine, and then the were sticks extended to the middle of earth it would make an angle of 7.2 degrees. 7.2 degrees is a 50th of 360 degrees (a whole circle). He then sent someone to measure the length between Alexandria and Seine and found that it was 800 miles. He then multiplied this value by 50 to get 40,000 miles, the circumference of the earth.

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34

Why did we melt two types of sugar(table sugar and isomalt) and compare them? What did that have to do with Optics?

When the table sugar was meted it turned into a caramel colored solid. But when the isomalt melted it turned into a clear solid. This related to Optics because it shows how glass is made, an item that is used to make telescopes and other optical devices. When silica, without impurities, is heated up it turns into clear glass.

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35

How did the discovery of glass change microbiology?

The glass could be used to make telescopes which would help you see smaller things better.

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36

Why does New Hampshire have a Bureau of Weights and Measures? What are some of their jobs?

New Hampshire has a Bureau of Weights and Measures to regulate measurements. They have models for almost every measurement unit. The Bureau of Weights and Measures also deals with a lot measurement complaints about measurement models, such as gas.

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37

What was the 1893 Columbian Exposition, and why was it important? Why was it called the Columbian Exposition?

The 1893 Columbian Exposition or the World’s fair was a humongous fair in Chicago that was used to compete against Europe’s fairs. It was huge and contained tons of stores and innovations from America, and people came to visit from everywhere. It was called the Columbian Exposition in celebration of the 100th anniversary of Columbus “discovering” America.

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38

What are the three main ingredients in chocolate?

Cocoa Solids Cocoa Butter (fat) sugar

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39

What does the percentage on the label of a bar of dark chocolate refer to?

The percentage represents the amount of cocoa solids in the bar of chocolate.

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