AP Psychology Unit 6

studied byStudied by 71 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

learning

1 / 56

Tags and Description

57 Terms

1

learning

the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 270)

New cards
2

habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated exposure to a stimulus. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e pp. 271, 491)

New cards
3

associative learning

learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequence (as in operant conditioning). (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 271)

New cards
4

stimulus

any event or situation that evokes a response. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 271)

New cards
5

respondent behavior

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 271)

New cards
6

operant behavior

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 271)

New cards
7

cognitive learning

the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 272)

New cards
8

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which we link two or more stimuli; as a result, to illustrate with Pavlov's classic experiment, the first stimulus (a tone) comes to elicit behavior (drooling) in anticipation of the second stimulus (food). (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 272)

New cards
9

behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2). (Myers Psychology for AP 3e pp. 10, 272)

New cards
10

neutral stimulus (NS)

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 273)

New cards
11

unconditioned response (UR)

in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth). (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 274)

New cards
12

unconditioned stimulus (US)

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers an unconditioned response UR). (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 274)

New cards
13

conditioned response (CR)

in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS). (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 274)

New cards
14

conditioned stimulus (CS)

in classical conditioning, an originally neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR). (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 274)

New cards
15

acquisition

in classical conditioning the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 275)

New cards
16

higher-order conditioning

a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning.) (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 276)

New cards
17

extinction

the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 276)

New cards
18

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 276)

New cards
19

generalization

the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses. (In operant conditioning, generalization occurs when responses learned in one situation occur in other, similar situations.) (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 276)

New cards
20

discrimination

(1) in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. (In operant conditioning, the ability to distinguish responses that are reinforced from similar responses that are not reinforced.) (2) in social psychology, unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e pp. 277, 792)

New cards
21

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which a behavior becomes more likely to recur if followed by a reinforcer or less likely to recur if followed by a punisher. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 283)

New cards
22

law of effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 283)

New cards
23

operant chamber

in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 284)

New cards
24

reinforcement

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 284)

New cards
25

shaping

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 284)

New cards
26

discriminative stimulus

in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement). (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 285)

New cards
27

positive reinforcement

increasing behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 285)

New cards
28

negative reinforcement

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing aversive stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: Negative reinforcement is not punishment.) (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 285)

New cards
29

primary reinforcer

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 286)

New cards
30

conditioned reinforcer

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 286)

New cards
31

reinforcement schedule

a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 287)

New cards
32

continuous reinforcement schedule

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 287)

New cards
33

partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedule

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 287)

New cards
34

fixed-ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 288)

New cards
35

variable-ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 288)

New cards
36

fixed-interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 288)

New cards
37

variable-interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 288)

New cards
38

punishment

an event that tends to decrease the behavior that it follows. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 289)

New cards
39

biofeedback

a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 296)

New cards
40

preparedness

a biological predisposition to learn associations, such as between taste and nausea, that have survival value. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 300)

New cards
41

instinctive drift

the tendency of learned behavior to gradually revert to biologically predisposed patterns. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 303)

New cards
42

cognitive map

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 304)

New cards
43

latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 304)

New cards
44

insight

a sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e pp. 304, 370)

New cards
45

intrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 305)

New cards
46

extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 305)

New cards
47

problem-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress directly—by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 306)

New cards
48

emotion-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to our stress reaction. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 306)

New cards
49

personal control

our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 306)

New cards
50

learned helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or person learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 307)

New cards
51

external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 309)

New cards
52

internal locus of control

the perception that we control our own fate. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 309)

New cards
53

self-control

the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 309)

New cards
54

observational learning

learning by observing others. (Also called social learning.) (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 312)

New cards
55

modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 312)

New cards
56

mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when we perform certain actions or observe another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 313)

New cards
57

prosocial behavior

positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior. (Myers Psychology for AP 3e p. 315)

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 161 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14536 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(125)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 80 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard140 terms
studied byStudied by 227 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard66 terms
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard80 terms
studied byStudied by 73 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard73 terms
studied byStudied by 45 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)