Midterm 2

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GABA

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69 Terms

1

GABA

gamma-aminobutyric acid; an amino acid that helps to regulate mood

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2

panic attack

a brief period of abrupt, intense fear; characterized by dizziness, heart palpitations, sweating, and chills

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3

major depressive episode

a period characterized by the symptoms of major depressive disorder, such as depressed mood, anhedonia, sleep disturbances, and fatigue

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4

major depressive episode

What is Major Depressive Disorder characterized by?

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5

manic episode + depressive episode

How is Bipolar 1 Disorder characterized?

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6

hypomanic episode + depressive episode

How is Bipolar 2 Disorder characterized?

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7

hypomanic episode

a period that has to last 4 days, has fewer/milder symptoms compared to manic episodes, and is a building block for other disorders

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8

manic episode

a period that has to last for 7 days, with symptoms such as inflated self-esteem, pressured speech, racing thoughts/distractibility, and high-risk behaviors

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9

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

a disorder where depression occurs during a majority of one’s menstrual cycle

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10

Persistent Depressive Disorder

a mood disorder characterized by feeling depressed most of the day, for most days, for at least 2 years

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11

hoarding

characterized by excessively collecting or keeping items regardless of their value and difficulty discarding items, usually due to a fear that they will be needed later

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12

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

a preoccupation with some imagined defect in appearance; ex: muscles “feel” too small or skin looks uneven

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13

trichotillomania

the urge to pull out one’s own hair from anywhere on the body

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14

excoriation

repetitive and compulsive picking of the skin, leading to tissue damage

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15

Adjustment Disorders

disorders that occur in reaction to life stressors such as moving, a new job, divorce, etc.

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16

Panic Disorder

a disorder characterized by a bunch of panic attacks in addition to worrying about future panic attacks

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17

Agoraphobia

a fear of being in a place where a panic attack can happen

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18

specific phobia

extreme/irrational fear of an object/situation, leading to avoidance

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19

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

also known as GAD, a disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable anxiety and apprehensiveness

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20

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

also known as OCD, a vicious cycle of unwanted thoughts and fears that lead to repetitive behaviors

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21

Social Anxiety Disorder

extreme fear or discomfort in performance or social situations

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22

performance-related subtype

anxiety only occurs in performance-related situations without anxiety in everyday interactions

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23

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

also known as PTSD, a disorder that develops after exposure to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, child abuse

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24

Acute Stress Disorder

a disorder characterized by PTSD immediately developing (up to 1 month) post-trauma

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25

negative cognitive triad

negative views about oneself, the world, and the future

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26

MAOI

an acronym that stands for “monoamine oxidase inhibitor”; a type of antidepressant that has strong reactions with SSRIs and OTCs; hazardous interactions with a lot of foods

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27

lithium

an element of the alkali metal group whose salts are used in psychopharmacotherapy as mood stabilizers

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28

norepinephrine

a neurotransmitter and hormone released into the bloodstream by the adrenal glands to enable the body’s "fight-or-flight" response

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29

SSRI

an acronym meaning “selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor”; an antidepressant that blocks serotonin reuptake; could cause suicidality

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30

tricyclic

an antidepressant that blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine; increases neurotransmitter activity in the synapse; easy to overdose with irreversible damage

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31

serotonin

a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in bodily functions such as regulating mood

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32

interoceptive exposure

exposure to internal functions; ex: drinking coffee to increase heart rate

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33

benzodiazepines

an antidepressant prescribed to treat conditions such as anxiety disorders, insomnia, and seizures; not a good long-term solution

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34

the 3 D’s

“Deviance, Distress, and Dysfunction” are collectively known as…

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35

cognitive-behavioral therapy

What is the most common form of treatment for mood and anxiety disorders?

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36

Mowrer’s 2-Factor Theory

states that a phobia is first classically-conditioned before avoidance starts/occurs

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37

NO

Can hypomania be a diagnosis?

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38

serotonin

What neurotransmitter is commonly targeted in the drug/medication treatment of mood disorders?

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39

building blocks

Episodes are NOT diagnoses themselves. They are ___ ___ for other disorders.

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40

extinction

refers to the fading and disappearance of a response that was previously learned by association with another stimulus

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41

exposure therapy

a psychological treatment that was developed to help people conquer their fears by confronting them

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42

systematic desensitization

a treatment method that increases the feeling of self-control against a feared situation/phobia by gradually desensitizing the individual; imaginary fear transfers to real life

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43

reciprocal inhibition

states that you can’t feel 2 opposite body states at the same time; ex: cravings and nausea

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44

flooding

a type of exposure therapy where a person is put in a feared situation without escape

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45

fear

a present-oriented mood state

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46

anxiety

a future-oriented mood state

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47

higher

The lower GABA levels fall, the _____ anxiety levels go.

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48

Progressive Muscle Relaxation

an exercise that reduces stress and anxiety in your body by having you slowly tense and then relax each muscle

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49

norepinephrine

What is the neurotransmitter targeted by drug treatment of Panic Disorder?

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50

realistic anxiety

anxiety stemming from actual danger

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51

neurotic anxiety

anxiety stemming from when id impulses are stopped

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52

moral anxiety

anxiety stemming from when id impulses are punished

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53

generalized anxiety disorder

What disorder develops when ego defense mechanisms can’t effectively combat realistic, neurotic, and moral anxiety?

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54

learned responses

According to the behavioral-cognitive perspective, anxiety and fear are…

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55

childhood

According to the psychodynamic perspective, all humans experience anxiety during what period of their lives?

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56

cognitive perspective

Which perspective states that anxiety is caused by unrealistic, silent assumptions implying imminent danger?

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57

learned

According to the behavioral perspective, excessive worry is ____.

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58

GABA

According to the biological perspective, GAD is caused by the inactivity of which neurotransmitter?

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59

NO

Are benzodiazepines a good long-term solution for Generalized Anxiety Disorder?

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60

blood-injection-injury phobia

a phobia responding to blood draws, blood from wounds, etc.

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61

displaced anxiety

According to a psychodynamic perspective, specific phobias are caused by _____.

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62

selective mutism

a rare childhood disorder shown by lack of speech

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63

separation anxiety

anxiety about being away from or leaving loved ones

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64

2 weeks

According to the DSM-5 criteria, how long does an individual need to feel symptoms before they can properly state they’ve had a major depressive episode?

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65

5

According to the DSM-5 criteria, how many symptoms does an individual need to feel before they can properly state they’ve had a major depressive episode?

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66

anhedonia

reduced motivation, interest, or ability to experience pleasure

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67

3

According to the DSM-5 criteria, how many symptoms does an individual need to feel before they can properly state they’ve had a manic episode?

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68

depressive episode

For diagnosing Bipolar Disorder, if you only had a manic episode, it may be possible that the ___ ___ has not happened yet.

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69

4

According to the DSM-5 criteria, how many days does an individual need to feel symptoms before they can properly state they’ve had a hypomanic episode?

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