Sociocultural definitions

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46 Terms

1

Confederate

An actor who participates in a psychological experiment pretending to be a subject but in actuality working for the researcher

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2

Content analysis

a method used to analyse qualitative data in which the research looks for "themes" or trends that emerge from the data.

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3

Covert observation

a type of participant observation in which the identity of the researcher, the nature of the research project, and the fact that participants are being observed are concealed from those who are being studied.

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4

Cross-sectional design

Comparing two or more groups on a particular variable at a specific time. The opposite is a longitudinal design where the researcher measures change in an individual over time.

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5

Longitudinal study

research over a period of time using observations, interviews or psychometric testing. (Similar to a repeated measures design in an experiment).

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6

Meta-analysis

Pooling data from multiple studies of the same research question to arrive at one combined answer.

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7

Method triangulation

using more than one method to gather data, such as interviews, observations and questionnaires.

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8

Participant observation

When a researcher joins a group in order to better observe and understand their behaviour.

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9

Prospective research

A study that attempts to find a correlation between two variables by collecting data early in the life of participants and then continuing to test them over a period of time to measure change and development.

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10

Retrospective research

A study of an individual after an important change or development. For example, the study of a person after a stroke. This requires the research to "reconstruct" the life of the individual prior to the event.

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11

Acculturation

The process by which someone comes into contact with another culture and begins to adopt the norms and behaviours of that culture.

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12

Acculturation gaps

generational differences in acculturation and how this leads to conflict within the family.

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13

Acculturative stress

a reduction in the mental health and well-being of ethnic minorities that occurs during the process of adaptation to a new culture. It is often referred to as "culture shock."

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14

Assimilation

when an individual abandons their original culture and adopts the cultural behaviours and values of a new culture.

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15

Confirmation bias

when people tend to seek out or remember information that supports their currently held beliefs or expectations - and ignore information that contradicts these beliefs.

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16

Cultural norm

a set of rules based on socially or culturally shared beliefs of how an individual ought to behave to be accepted within that group.

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17

Cultural dimension

the trends of behaviour in a given culture which reflect the values of that culture.

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18

Dispositional factors

individual characteristics that influence behavior and actions in a person - such as personality or temperament.

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19

Emic approach

looking at behaviors of a group from the perspective of one member of that group.

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20

Enculturation

the process of adopting or internalizing the schemas of your culture.

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21

Etic approach

typically taken within cross-cultural psychology where behaviour is compared across specific cultures. Etic study involves drawing on the notion of universal properties of cultures, which share common perceptual, cognitive, and emotional structures.

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22

Global culture

the culture that we come to learn and perhaps adapt to by contact with other cultures – via travel, working in international companies or through the media and social networking.

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23

Globalization

the process of interaction and integration among people of different nations and cultures.

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24

Illusory correlation

people see a relationship between two variables even when there is none.

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25

Informational social influence

Also known as social proof - when people look to the actions of others in an attempt to determine how to behave in a given situation.

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26

In-group bias

favoring members of one's in-group over out-group members.

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27

Integration

When there is an interest in adopting the behaviours and values of a new culture, while still maintaining one's original culture.

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28

Local culture

the culture that we grow up in and share with others in the same environment.

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29

Marginalization

when it is not really possible to maintain one’s original culture, but because of exclusion or discrimination, it is not possible to assimilate into a new culture.

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30

Normative social influence

when a person conforms to be liked or accepted by members of a group.

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31

Salience

when one is highly aware of one of their membership to a social group.

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32

Self-efficacy

one's belief in one's ability to succeed accomplishing a task.

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33

Social context

how someone reacts to something depending on their immediate social or physical environment.

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34

Stereotype

a social perception of an individual in terms of group membership or physical attributes.

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35

Stereotype threat

when worry about conforming to a negative stereotype leads to underperformance on a test or other task by a member of the stereotyped group

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36

Vicarious reinforcement

our tendency to repeat or imitate behaviors for which others are being rewarded.

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37

Stages of SCT

Attention, Retention, Motivation, Potential

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38

Attention

In order to learn, observers must attend to the modeled behaviour.

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39

Retention

In order to reproduce an observed behaviour, observers must be able to remember features of a behaviour

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40

Motivation

In order to reproduce an observed behaviour, observers must want to reproduce it and expect a certain outcome from the behaviour.

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41

Potential

In order to reproduce an observed behaviour, observers must be physically and/or mentally able to carry out the behaviour.

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42

Stages of SIT

Social Categorization, Social Identification, Social Comparison, Positive Distinctiveness

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43

Social Categorization

The process of classifying people into groups based on similar characteristics, whether it be nationality, age, occupation, or some other trait. This categorization gives rise to in-groups (us) and out-groups (them)

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44

Social Identification

Takes place after deciding to be in the group, this is the process of adopting the norms of the group and taking on the characteristics of the group.

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45

Social Comparison

To justify one’s group membership

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46

Positive Distinctiveness

To seek to achieve positive self-esteem by positively comparing our in-group to an out-group, on some valued dimension.

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