Cells pt.2

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cell

smallest unit that carries out all life functions

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scientist started looking into primitive microscope

how were cells discovered

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hooke

saw chambers under a cork microscope that reminded him of where monks lived and named them cells hypothezised all organisms are made of cells

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schleiden

stated all plants are made of cells; botonist concluded an embryonic plant arose from a single cell

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schwaan

focused on nerve/animal cells stated all animals are made of cells

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virchow

cells come from pre-existing cells

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leeuwhenhoek

discovered uni cellular organisms first to see multiple cells, including red blood cells first to see nucleus of blood cells

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cell theory

living organisms are made of cells, they are the basic structure/organizational unit of all organisms and they come from pre existing cells

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prokaryotic cell

-does not have a true nucleus or membrane bound organelles -blue-green algae, bacteria

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eukaryotic cell

-contains membrane bound organelles -protist ,fungi,plants, animals

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prokaryotic: cell wall: cell membrane: nucleus: endoplasmic reticulum: gogi: mitochondria: chloroplast: ribosomes: central vacuole: chromatin or dna:

✓ ✓ x x x x x ✓ x ✓

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eukaryotic plant: cell wall: cell membrane: nucleus: endoplasmic reticulum: gogi: mitochondria: chloroplast: ribosomes: central vacuole: chromatin or dna:

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

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eukaryotic animal: cell wall: cell membrane: nucleus: endoplasmic reticulum: gogi: mitochondria: chloroplast: ribosomes: central vacuole: chromatin or dna:

x ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ x ✓ x ✓

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microfilaments and microtubules

form the cytoskeleton (framework) of the animal cell

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microfilaments

rod like and provide movement

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microtubules

long slender tubes of protiens that provide framework for cell

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flagella

-long whip like for movement -made of microtubles -ony human cell with this is the sperm cell

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cilia

short hair like for movement -made of microtubles

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cell wall

-extra barrier made of cellulose -outside of plant cell -support

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vacuole

-large and central storage of water

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chloroplast

-green cause of chlorophyll -energy from sun is turned into sugar

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microfilaments and microtubules

-form the cytoskeleton (framework) of the animal cell

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cell membrane

-semipermeable -phospholipid bylayar embeded w/ proteins -protiens act as channels -contain ID tags -fluid mosaic model

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nucleus

-big large round structure -surrounded by nuclear envelope -stains purple usually -contains nucleus and chromosones -control center for cell

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nucleolus

-small inside nucleus -makes ribsomes -has nucleolus plasma (jelly like material)

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chromatin

-dna of cell -function involved with heditary -blueprint of cell -chromoson: shortened/condensed/replicated

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cytoplasm

-everything in cell membrane beside nucleus -cytosol: jelly surronding organelle -organelles are suspended in cytosol -chemical reaction take place

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mitochondria

-bean shaped -food is converted to energy -crista: where ATP takes place

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ribsome

-smallest, most important -spherical organelles where protein is synthesized -located throughout cell rough er -made of ribosomal rna

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rough endosplamic reticulum

-elongated canal like membrane -connects nuclear envelope or outside of nucleus -transports proteins

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smooth ER

-branching network of tubules -no ribosomes -usually connected to rer -transports lipids --detoxification of drugs

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golgi apparatus

-stacks like pancakes -secretes and packages

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lysosome

-cleans cellular debris -pinch of golgi -attach to bacteria cells -dygestive enzymes

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active transport

-no energy required -molecules go down concentration gradient from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

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diffusion

movement of a substance directly across or through channel points

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facilitated diffusion

proteins in cell membranes carry molecules across

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osmosis

diffusion of water

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hypotonic solution

cell swells

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hypertonic solution

cell shrinks

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isotonic

no change in cell

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dynamic equilibrium

a state of balance between continuing processes

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cytolosis

the dissolution or disruption of cells

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no, it will cause your cells to shrink making your kidneys remove the salt. the water is hypertonic.

should you drink sea water

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bulk transport

where it is packaged and either shipped out or brought in

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endocytosis

material goes into cell in bulk

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exocytosis

material leaves the cell and is packaged and secreted

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lipid protien

what does fluid stand for what does mosaic stand for

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crisper

during hypotonic, a plant cell ______

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shrivels

during hypertonic a plant cell _______

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microvilli

increases surface area

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