A&P 2: Exam 3 Review

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amylase hydrolyzes ______ carbohydrates

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1

amylase hydrolyzes ______ carbohydrates

complex carbohydrates

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2

pepsin hydrolyzes ________

proteins

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3

lipase works with ____ to form _____

bile to form micelles

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4

nuclease hydrolyzes _____ and ______

DNA + RNA

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5

gastrin causes secretion of _____ and _______

HCI (hydrochloric acid) + pepsinogen

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6

secretin causes secretion of ______ from _______

bicarbonate from pancreas

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7

CCK (cholecystokinin) results in secretion from ______ and ________

gallbladder and pancreas

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8

GIP (gastric inhibitory peptide) increases secretion of ______ from _____ and reduce _________ activity

insulin from pancreas + reduces gastric activity

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9

VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) causes __________ in intestinal arterioles

vasodilation

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10

eterocrinin causes production of _______ in ______ intestine

mucus in small intestine

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11

nasal cavity:

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. function?

  1. upper conducting system

  2. ciliated pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium

  3. filters, humidifies, and warms air

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12

bronchial tree begins at the ______

hilum

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13

nasopharynx:

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. function?

  1. upper conducting cavity

  2. ciliated pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium

  3. filters, humidifies, and warms air

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14

oropharynx:

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. function?

  1. upper conducting cavity

  2. stratified squamous epithelium

  3. allow air, food, fluid to pass through

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15

laryngopharynx:

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. function?

  1. upper conducting cavity

  2. stratified squamous epithelium

  3. regulates passageway of air to lungs + food/fluid to esophagus

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16

larynx:

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. cartilage?

  4. function?

  1. lower conducting

  2. ciliated pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium

  3. and 4. yes; epiglottis (protects glottis), thyroid (vocal and vestibular folds), cricoid, other paired car.

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17

trachea

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. cartilage?

  4. function?

  1. lower conducting

  2. ciliated pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium

  3. and 4. yes; C-shape rings (allow for expansion)

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18

bronchial tree: primary bronchi

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. cartilage?

  4. function?

  1. lower conducting

  2. ciliated pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium

  3. rings of cartilages

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19

bronchial tree: secondary

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. cartilage?

  4. function?

  1. lower conducting

  2. ciliated pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium

  3. n/a

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20

bronchial tree: tertiary

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. cartilage?

  4. function?

  1. lower conducting

  2. ciliated pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium

  3. fewer + smaller ring of cartilages

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21

bronchial tree: terminal

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. cartilage?

  4. function?

  1. lower conducting

  2. ciliated pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium

  3. n/a

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22

bronchial tree: respiratory bronchials

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. function?

  1. lower conducting

  2. simple squamous epithelium

  3. deliver air

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23

alveolar ducts: alveoli (type I)

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. cartilage?

  4. function?

type I: pneumocytes (wall)

  1. lower conducting

  2. simple squamous

  3. n/a

  4. gas exchange

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24

alveolar ducts: alveoli (type II)

  1. lower or upper conducting cavity?

  2. form? (ciliated, stratified squa)

  3. cartilage?

  4. function?

type II: pneumocytes (significant)

  1. lower conducting

  2. cuboidal

  3. n/a

  4. secrete pulmonary surfactant (reduces surface tension)

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25

stratisfied squamous epithelium protect against _____ in the oropharynx and ______

abrasion + laryngopharynx

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26

celiated pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium is a _____ escalator which is seen all through the conducting zone except _____ and _______

mucus + laryngopharynx + oropharynx

(moves mucus towards mouth to clean lungs)

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27

simple squamous epithelium helps with ________ in the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli

diffusion

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28

the larynx has three large, unpaired cartilages which are the _____, ____ ___ (vibrate to make sound!) _____ ____ (“false cords”)

glottis + vocal folds + vestibular folds

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29

the trachea has ____- shaped rings that help with _____

C-shaped + swallowing (help expand when swallowing)

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30

bronchi have complete ________ rings

cartilaginous rings

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31

ciliated pseudostratisfied columnar epithelium has ___ cells and ____ to make and move mucus out of the tract

goblet cells + cilia

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32

______ exchange occurs between alveoli (type I) and ____ capillaries

gas exchange + pulmonary capillaries

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33

gas exchange requires alveoli to be _____ and ______

ventilates + perfused

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34

type II alveoli make _____ to decrease _____ _____

surfactant + surface tension

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35

preterm infants = no surfactant = no _____ ____ = _____ _______ ______

surface tension + respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)

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36

lungs transfer _____ and _____ between the air and the blood

O2 and CO2

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37

abdominal muscles and internal intercostals control _________

expiration

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38

external intercostals: pressure changes control _______

inspiration

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39

ventilation moves air ____ (inhalation) and _____ (exhalation) of lung based on volume and _______ changes

in and out + pressure

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40

boyle’s law states that the pressure and volume are _______ related (one increases, the other decreases)

inversely

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41

in inhalation, the diaphragm ______ and _______ volume of thoracic cavity

contracts + increases

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42

in exhalation, the diaphragm _____ and the thoracic volume _____

relaxes + decreases

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43

inhalation is when ___ pressure is less than ____ (air in)

intrapulmonary pressure < atmospheric pressure

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44

atmospheric pressure is ________ the body

outside

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45

intrapulmonary pressure is ______ lungs

inside

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46

intrapleural pressure is _____ lungs and is always ______ to help pull lungs outward and reinflate them

outside + negative

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47

intrapulmonary pressure decreases because:

  1. diaphragm and external intercostals actively _______

  2. thoracic cavity expands ______

  3. pleura expands _____

  4. hydrogen bonding in pleural fluid _____

  1. contract

  2. pleura

  3. lungs

  4. pulls

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48

when inhalation ends, intrapulmonary pressure = _____ pressure

atmospheric

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49

exhalation is when ________ pressure is greater than _____ pressure (air out)

intrapulmonary + atmospheric

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50

intrapulmonary pressure increases because:

  1. diaphragm and external intercostals ______ and compress thoracic cavity

  2. thoracic cavity compresses ______

  3. pleura compresses ______

  4. alveoli don’t collapse because of ________ (no H bonding)

  1. RELAX

  2. pleura

  3. lungs

  4. surfactant (prevents lungs from collapsing = intrapleural pressure)

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51

when exhalation ends, intrapulmonary pressure = ______ pressure

atmospheric

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52

accessory muscles of exhalation include:

  1. internal intercostals

  2. transversus abdominus

  3. abdominal obliques

  4. all of the above

all of the above

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53

which of the following would NOT prevent atelectasis (collapse of lungs)?

  1. negative intrapleural pressure

  2. hydrogen bonding in the pleural fluid

  3. surfactant

  4. pneumothorax

pneumothorax (makes the intrapleural pressure not negative anymore which elads to lung collapse)

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54

True of False: hydrogen bonding in pleural fluid is a bad thing

false (it is a good thing)

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55

dorsal respiratory group in medulla always stimulates _________

inhalation

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56

ventral respiratory group in medulla always stimulates muscles during forced ___ and forced _____

forced inhalation + forced exhalation

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57

remedy hypoventilation FLOWCHART:

  1. hypoventilation > hypercapnia (excessive CO2 in blood) (increase PCO2) > increase acidosis (decrease pH)

  1. chemoreceptors sense increase PCO2 and decrease in pH are triggered

  2. dorsal respiratory group stimulates

  3. diaphragm contract and external intercostals contract

  4. increase rate and depth of inhalation (ventilation)

  5. increase pH and decrease of PCO2

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58

baroreceptors/stretch receptors are important because they make sure we do not _________ our lungs

over inflate

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59

chemoreceptors control the rate of ______

breathing

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60

in respiration, highly efficient exchange depends on:

  1. high surface area

  1. short diffusion distance (thin membrane, little mucus)

  2. maintenance of partial pressure gradients (air goes in and out, blood goes round and round)

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61

less alveoli, thicker membrane, and reduced gradients will _______ rate and amout of diffusion

decrease

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62

external respiration is when PO2 ____ and PCO2 ______ along systematic capillary

decreases + increases

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63

internal respiration is when PO2 ____ and PCO2 _____ along pulmonary capillary

increases + decreases

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64

95% of oxygen in the blood is transported as ___; while 25% of the carbon dioxide is transported as ______

  1. oxyhemoglobin; bicarbonate

  2. deoxyhemoglobin; bicarbonate

  3. deoxyhemoglobin; plasma CO2

  4. oxyhemoglobin; carbaminohemoglobin

oxyhemoglobin; carbaminohemoglobin

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65

most of the carbon dioxide in the blood travels as ______ in the _______

  1. carbominohemoglobin; red blood cell

  2. carboxyaminohemoglobin; red blood cell

  3. bicarbonate; plasma

  4. carbon dioxide; plasma

bicarbonatel; plasma (if something is bound to hemoglobin it is inside RBC, if bound to plasma it is outside RBC)

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66

carbon dioxide transport in blood:

Hb= hemoglobin, CAH = ______ _______

carbon anhydrase

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67

gas exchange in respiring tissues starts from inside ______ and HbO2 → ___ + HHb

RBC + O2

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68

gas exchange at lungs (alveoli) goes from lungs into ____ and HHb + ____ → HbO2

RBC + O2

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69

hemoglobin saturation refers to % of Hb bound to _______

O2

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70

saturation curve displays how Hb’s ability to bind O2 varies with the ______

PO2

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71

why does hemoglobin-O2 affinity decrease during moderately intense exercise?

  1. decreased PO2 at the tissues

  2. decreased pH at the tissues

  3. increased temperature at the tissues

  4. all of the above

all of the above0

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72

True of false: decreased compliance or increased resistance in the lungs can lead to hypoventilation and hypercapnia

true

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73

gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, ____, ______, ______, ___ ___, ___ ___

pharynx + esophagus + stomach + small intestine + large intestine

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74

the wall of the GI tract usually has 4 layers which are:

  1. mucosa around lumen

  2. submucosa

  3. muscularis externa

  4. serosa around organ

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75

mucosa of small intestines is folded (villi) and the simple columnar epithelum has ___ ____ (microvilli)

brush border

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76

intestinal mortility (peristalsis) is caused when muscularis externa is stimulated by the ________

  1. submucosal plexus

  2. myenteric plexus

  3. plicae circularis

  4. haustra

myenteric plexus (these nerves stimulate to contract and produce peristalsis)

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77

plicae circularis icreases _____ _____

surface area

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78

haustra are pockets in the ___ intestine that compact _____

large intestine + feces

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79

steps in food process FLOWCHART:

  1. oral cavity

  1. oro + laryngopharynx shared spaces for air, food, water

  2. epiglottis direct food away from glottis and larynx

  3. deglutition (swallowing) + peristalsis

  4. stomach stores food, chemical digestion

  5. small intestine chemically digest and absorb nutrients

    ( mucosa has brush border)

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80

what structures increase the surface area for absorption and secretion in the small intestine?

  1. microvilli (brush border)

  2. villi

  3. plicae circularis

  4. haustra

  5. 1, 2 and 3

  6. all of the above

1, 2 and 3

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81

large intestine reabsorbs _______ and compacts _______

water + feces

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82

the rectum stores ______

feces

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83

voluntary sphincter muscles _______ to expel feces

relaxes

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84

pancreas secretes _____ and enzymes in the _______

bicarbonate + duodenum

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85

bicarbonate neutralizes the _____ _______ juices

acid gastric

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86

liver and gallbladder make ____ to aid in fat digestion. liver __ bile and gallbladder ____ bile

bile + liver makes bile + gallbladder stores bile

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87

each lobe of the liver is made of _____. they are six sided structures, each side with a portal _____

lobules + portal triad

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88

portal triad has branches of hepatic portal vein, hepatic ____ and bile ____

hepatic artery + bile duct

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89

canaliculi carries _______ towards bile duct

bile

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90

hepatocytes (liver cells with microvilli) are between ____ _____

portal triads

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91

blockage of which duct must increase the likliehood of an ulcer in the duodenum?

  1. right or left hepatic duct

  2. cystic duct

  3. common bile duct

  4. pancreatic duct

pancreatic duct (digestive enzymes

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92

the cephalic phase has a ___ mechanism where the vagus nerve prompts stomach to produce _______

neural (see w/ eyes) + gastrin

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93

the gastric phase has ___, ___, and _____ mechanisms where the stomach produces ______

neural + local + hormonal + gastrin

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94

the intestinal phase has _____ and ___ mechanisms where intestinal cells secrete enterocinin, secretin, CCK, GIP and _____

neural + hormonal + VIP

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95

gastrin is made by ___ cells in the stomach and the duodenum. it is released in the presence of _____ proteins, it increases both stomach _____ and secretion of ____ ____

G cells + undigested + stomach motility + gastric juices

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96

secretin is made by ____ __c__ells of the duodenum. it is released in the presence of ___ ___ and directly increases ____, reduces ____ _____

enteroendocrine cells + acidic chyme + pH + gastric activity

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97

enterocrinin is made by the ____ cells of the duodenum which stimulates ___ production by submucosal glands

enteroendocrine cells + mucus

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98

cholecystokini (CCK) is made by _____ cells and is released in the presence of _____ and ___. It increases secretion of ___ enzymes, increases secretion of ____, and reduces __ activity and ____

enteroendocrine cells + lipids and proteins + digestive + bile + gastric activity + hunger

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99

in the cephalic phase, the body prepares stomach for _____

food

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100

in the gastric phase, the body _______ gastric secretions

increases

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