Quiz Study 9

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allostasis

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allostasis

  • refers to the adaptive way in which the body anticipates needs depending on the situation

  • help the body avoid errors instead of just correcting them

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basal metabolism

  • energy used to maintain a constant body temperature while a rest

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ectothermic

  • the idea that the body temperature matches that of the environment

  • aka poikilothermic

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endothermic

  • use of internal physiological mechanisms to maintain an almost constant body temperature

  • aka homeothermic

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homeostasis

  • various biological processes that keep body variables within a fixed range

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negative feedback

  • processes that reduce discrepancies from the set point

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preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus, or POA/AH

  • body temperature regulation is dependent on this

  • receives input from temperature receptors throughout the body

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set point

  • a single value that the body works to maintain

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aldosterone

  • a corticosteroid hormone which stimulates absorption of sodium by the kidneys and so regulates water and salt balance

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antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

  • raises blood pressure by constricting blood vessels

  • helps to compensate for decreased water volume

  • example: vasopressin

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osmotic pressure

  • created by solutes inside and outside a cell

  • occurs when solutes are more concentrated on one side of the membrane -certain neurons detect the loss of water and trigger osmotic thirst to help restore the body to its normal state

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vasopressin

  • a hormone released by the posterior pituitary

  • enables the kidneys to reabsorb water and excrete highly concentrated urine

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anorexia nervosa

  • Eating disorder characterized by a refusal to eat enough to maintain a healthy body weight

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bulimia nervosa

  • eating disorder in which people alternate between extreme dieting and binges of overeating

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cholecystokinin (CKK)

  • released by the duodenum to regulate hunger

  • closes sphincter muscle between the stomach and duodenum and causing the stomach to hold its contents and fill faster

  • stimulating the vagus nerve to send a message to the hypothalamus that releases a chemical similar to CCK

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lactase

  • intestinal enzyme necessary for metabolizing lactose

  • declining levels of lactase may be an evolutionary mechanism to encourage weaning

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lactose

  • the sugar found in milk

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lateral hypothalamus

  • controls insulin secretion and alters taste responsiveness

  • stimulation of this increases the drive to eat

  • damage to this area cause aversion to food

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leptin

  • produced by the body's fat cells to signal the brain to increase or decrease eating

  • low levels increase hunger, high levels reduce eating and increase physical and immune system activity

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neuropeptide Y (NPY)

  • inhibitory transmitter

  • blocks the satiety action of the paraventricular nucleus and provokes overeating

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vagus nerve

  • conveys information about the stretching of the stomach walls to the brain

  • *the main signal to stop eating is the distention of the stomach

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ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)

  • output from the VMH inhibits feedings

  • damage to the nucleus leads to overeating and weight gain

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