Algerian War Noun Check

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dey

Turkish nominal ruler of the Northern region of Africa (Regency of Algeris, Tripoli, and Tunis)

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jihad

holy war which united Arab and Berber clans in resistance against French colonization

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assimilation

movement led by Fehat Abbas which fought for equality between Muslim Algerians and French Citizens

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self-determination

concept popularized following World War II; Churchill and FDR drew up Atlantic Charter which pledge to support self-determination

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'white supremacy'

myth of it destroyed by French, British, and Dutch defeat in Southeast Asia by Japan during World War II

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guerrilla war

type of warfare in which smaller groups launch small quick attacks against more orthodox militaries; used by the FLN during Algerian war

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torture

used to extract information from FLN members especially during the Battle of Algeris

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collective punishment

reprisals against whole community due to renewed violence of FLN in early 1955

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"ineffectual politics" congress

Abbas referring to repression following Philippeville killings; results in first FLN Congress in Soummam Valley aimed at creating framework for independent state

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Algerian Algeria (Algérie algérienne)

Name used to describe an Algeria led by Muslim Algerians

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French Algeria (Algérie francaise)

Name used to describe an Algeria under the control of pied noirs and French govenrment

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ceasefire

negotiated within the Evian Accords however OAS actions following referendum led to continued violence

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referendum

held by the French government within France in which voters voted for against freeign Algeria; 99.72% in favor of liberation

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"regrouped" Algerian villages

French military reorganized Muslim Algerians into villages in the desert; some comparisons to Nazi internment camps or Japanese internment camps in US

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refugee camps

camps in Tunisia and Morocco for feeing Muslim Algerians

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quadrillage

It was a strategy where the French divided up the countryside into grids, which army units would systematically patrol to seek out guerrilla bands.

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haik

It means veil. It was used by the FLN as a weapon of war, either wearing it as a symbol of resistance towards the French, or discarding it when they wanted to mingle with pied noir crowds on missions.

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Algerian emigration

Algerians moving to France doubled during this period. 2 million Algerians were forced to move out of the countryside and to escape the situation many went to Tunisia and Morocco where they were recruited by the FLN guerrilla groups.

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resistance

Played a key role in unifying Algerians and drawing the civilian population into the struggle.

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"revolutionary" schools

Run by the FLN and offered evening classes to combat illiteracy, and at the same time spread ideas of resistance and revolution during the war

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"the suitcase or the coffin"

It is a common used phrase referring to the pied noirs that were caught in between the OAS and the FLN fighting after the war. It refers to them having to make a choice to leave or die.

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" one-party state"

FLN became the sole political party in Algeria banning Communist and Socialist parties and placing the UGTA under its control

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amnesty laws

These were passed to pardon the former OAS members and by 1968 all had received officials pardons.

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scorched earth policy

It is a last-ditch attempt by OAS to deter a hostile takeover by making the target company unattractive to the potential acquirer. This policy devastated economic potential and hindered recovery.

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dislocation/displacement

In 1962, Algeria was still a predominantly rural society. Displacement of the rural population to the cities during the war created massive social problems.

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"Algerian socialism"

The economic policies of the new government. Involved widespread state involvement in the economy.

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"self-management"

Workers took control of factories and businesses to keep them going after the departure of their European managers in a government sponsored system which was met with varied success.

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" neo-colonialism "

It describes the continuing economic control that industrialized countries have over their former colonies. Ben Bella denounced this concept

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anti-Algerian riots

result of mass emigration of Algerian workers to France. After the deaths of Algerian workers in these conflicts, the Algerian government stopped all emigration for a while.

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"safety valve"

Ben Bella's government did not favor emigration to France, but saw it as an important tool to ease the pressure on the labor market, and to improve the balance of payments through the money sent back to Algeria by emigrant workers to support their families.

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Berbers

One of the ethnic groups in Algeria. They predated the Arabs and had a different culture, though they shared language and religion. They would sometimes have conflicts with the Arabs

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Arabs

The other main ethnic group in Algeria. They had immigrated to North Africa. Their culture was also the ruling culture, as the Ottoman Dey ruled from Isanbul, though he had little control in Algeria. They were Muslim and would have conflicts with the Berbers

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Barbary pirates

They were pirates who operated out of North Africa, specifically the Barbary Coast. They attacked shipments across the Mediterranean, straining the relationship between France and Algeria.

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colons (colonists)

They were also known as pied noirs and would take much of the arable land and grow to be influencial in French politics, even though not all of them were French.

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pieds noirs

Another word for the colons, they were the Europeans who immigrated to Algeria. This translated to 'black feet' in English, referring to their profession of winemaking.

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Abd Al Qadir

One of the first leaders of Algerian resistance against the French occupation. He united the Arabs and Berbers for jihad, or holy war, against the French colonialism. He eventually was sent into exile, where he ironically received an award from Napoleon III for rescuing Christians from riots. His green and white standard became the symbol for Independent Algeria

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Messali Hadj

Led the revolutionary group, Etoile Nord-Africaine. He had lived in France, saw the democracy and inequality for the Muslim Algerians. Formed the Parti du Peuple Algeria, to mobilize urban workers and farmers. He served in WWI, and had socialist and communist ideals.

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Ferhat Abbas

Wanted equality and citizenship for Muslim Algerians, or assimilation. Basically, removal of French privilege and Muslim rights.

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Abdul-Hamid Ben Badis

Led the religious movement, Association des Ulema, and wanted to reinstate Muslim principles, but little came of it.

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Leon Blum

A socialist who led the Popular Front, which was more sympathetic towards the Muslims. They proposed the Violette plan.

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Ferhat Abbas

Formed the Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto, originally wanted connections with France, but changed his mind after the war broke out.

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Charles de Gaulle

A French leader. He was lifted up by the Committee of Public Safety to try and keep Algeria as part of France, but he ended up supporting Algerian independence. He pushed through the Constantine Plan. A coup against him was attempted, and failed. The OAS tried many times to assassinate him too.

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Georges Catroux

Governor of Algeria, he recognized the need for reform. The reforms were similar to that of the Violette plan, but were rejected as too little too late.

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FDR

Helped draw up the Atlantic Charter, and pledged support for self-determination. President of America

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Winston Churchill

Helped draw up the Atlantic Charter, and pledged support for self-determination. Prime Minister of the UK

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Messali Hadj

Algerian nationalist. Leader of Etoile Nord-Africaine (North African Star): aimed to protect rights of migrant workers in France. He was the most revolutionary of the nationalist movement - wanted complete independence with no links to France . Had political goals such as press freedom, Arabic schools, confiscation of large estates, parliament elected by universal suffrage and independence. In 1937 he returned back to Algeria and formed the Party of Algerian People, where he tried to mobilize urban workers.

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Ahmed Ben Bella

In 1947 created Organisation Speciale. 1954: formed Front de Liberation National (FLN) - planned armed uprising to rid Algeria of France. He later became the first leader of an independent Algeria.

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Kateb Yacine

Algerian poet, novelist, playwright. His move Nedjma (1956) describes intra-clan conflict of Algerian society under French colonial rule

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Pierre Mendès France

Prime minister of France. Said that he would go to war to retain control of Algeria, because Algeria was part of the French Republic aka Metropolitan France

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harkis

Algerians that didn't want algerian indepence and were against the FLN. They supported the french during the war.

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French conscripts

Universal military conscription as a condition of citizenship. This was a way for France to have continued manpower throughout the war.

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Saadi Yacef

Was an extremely influential FLN leader. His arrest ended the battle of Algiers.

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Maurice Audin

Was a French mathematics assistant at the University of Algiers. Member of the Algerian communist party. Activist in anti colonialist cause. He dies under torture by the French state during the Battle of Algiers. This led to widespread controversy over torture

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General Salan

French Army general. Served as the fourth French commanding general during first Indochina war. Was one of four generals who organized the 1961 Algiers Putsch operation. He sought to prevent Algeria from gaining independence from France. 1961-1962 he led OAS in a campaign of terror against the government of Charles de Gaulle in both France and Algeria before being captured, tried and imprisoned.

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Sakiet-Sidi-Youssef

Feb 8, 1958: Tunisian village that was bombed by French forces in belief that it was serving as a refuge for Algerian independence fighters. Sparked international outcry and helped precipitate end of Algerian war.

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Frantz Fanon

French psychiatrist. Worked at a French hospital in Algeria, was responsible for treating the psychological distress of French soldiers and officers who carried out torture in order to suppress anti-colonial resistance. Was also responsible for treating Algerian torture victims. Wrote "A Dying Colonialism" and "The Wretched of the Earth"

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Jean-Paul Sartre

French philosopher. Called for Algerian independence. Sympathized with soviet communism and Marxism. Wrote the introduction to Fanon's "The Wretched of the Earth" and Alleg's "The Question"

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Albert Camus

French intellectual and philosopher. He was criticized for his failure to speak out against French atrocities in Algeria. Said that although he was critical of French actions, he identified with the pieds noirs' position. Had a falling out with Sartre

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Francis Jeanson

Was a French political activist known for his commitment to the FLN during the Algerian war.

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Maurice Papon

Paris head of police. One of the people to give orders for the French national police to attack pro FLN demonstrators in the Paris Massacre of 1961. The French government later tried to censor information about the massacre.

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Simone de Beauvoir

One signatory of Manifesto of the 121, strongly associated with Sartre

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Houari Boumediène

After the Algerian War and Ben Bella taking over as the first leader, Bella was overthrown by this person in a military coup. He was the minister of defense and former head of the FLN.

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Manifesto of the Algerian People (Manifeste du Peuple Algérien)

Signed during WW2 by Ferhat Abbas. Called for constitution (equality, land reform, Arabic as official language, Muslims in government, freedom for political prisoners). De Gaulle acknowledged this, but didn't do anything.

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Égalité

Members of the banned Algerian's People Party (PPA) joined the AML (Friends of the Manifesto & Liberty created by Ferhat and Hadj) and created this newspaper which was very popular.

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Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth

About the impact of colonialism on Africa, liberation of the third world, and economical/psychological effects of imperialism on colonized people. Believes violence is the only means to liberation.

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Fanon's A Dying Colonialism

Work examined the impact of colonialism on Africa as a whole, the liberation of the Third World, and the economic and psychological effects of imperialism on colonised people. Author believed that it was only through violence that colonised people could free themselves

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Henri Alleg & La Question

This historian was a journalist and exposed horrors in Algeria and was a left-wing intellectual. His work discusses his experience with French torture.

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Manifesto of the 121

Jean Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Françoise Sagan, and the actress Simone Signoret wrote this to show growing opposition to the war among French intellectuals. Had a major impact on public opinion and inspired demonstrations in France.

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Violette Plan

An extension of French citizenship/full rights to certain Muslims, like army officers, university graduates, professionals, and elected officials. Abbas and moderates liked the initiative, but Hadj called it an instrument of colonialism.

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Atlantic Charter

Statement about American/British goals for world after WW2. FDR and Churchill talked about self-determination, and the UN supported this and human rights.

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1958 Constantine Plan

De Gaulle made this. It would industrialize Algeria's economy, increase employment. It failed because it didn't weaken support for Algeria's nationalist movement or the GPRA.

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Evian Accords

Officially ended the war with French army in AL for 5 years. France could lease Mersel-Kebir for 15 years. Europeans got dual nationality, AL citizenship, or privileged foreign residents. Property respected.

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Tripoli Plan

Nationalist leaders met in May 1962 to work out a plan to transform the FLN from a liberation movement into a political party. The plan called for land reform, nationalization of industry/services, non-alignment and anti-colonialism

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Algiers

Largest and most cosmopolitan city in Algeria. It was divided by the Casbah and the French quarter.

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Morocco

Country was a French protectorate in 1912. Although it was technically under French control, the country was still theoretically under the rule of its sultan. France gives independence to this country in March 1956. FLN guerrillas were able to hide out/seek shelter in this neighboring state. The French army forced a civilian aircraft from here carrying FLN leader Ben Bella to land in Algeria. Later, this country fought a short war with Algeria over a section of their shared border(Oct. - Nov. 1963).

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Tunisia

France gave independence to this nation in March 1956. FLN guerrillas were able to hide out/seek shelter in this country. The nation wanted to revise its border with Algeria due to oil reserves found on the Algerian side.

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departments (Algiers, Oran, Constantine)

3 cities specifically under French control and considered a part of Metropolitan France

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Metropolitan France

Mainland France

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Casbah

The Muslim quarter of Algiers

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Mersel-Kebir

A naval base that France was allowed to lease for 15 years following the Evian Accords.

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Morice Line

An electrically charged wire fence along the border of Tunisia and Algeria. It was an attempt to isolate the FLN from recieving arms and other aid. It had minefields, barbed wire, electrified fences, watchtowers, etc. There were also cannons that fired automatically in some sections.

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Franco-Prussian War

France's move to integrate Algeria into France may have been a result of France's losing the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). France had to cede Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia, a loss of territory.

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World War I

Algerian nationalist movement has its roots in WWI. 173,000 Algerians fight in the French army, and thousands more help the war by working in French factories. They were "exposed to the workings of democracy" which the French did not allow them.After WWI, thousands of Algerians move to France to work and experienced low pay and bad working conditions.

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World War II

80,000 Algerian soldiers fight in France. Colonial officials declare loyalty to the Vichy Government. US and UK land troops in Algeria in 1942 to help the Allies. Colonial authorities join Allies instead of the Vichy gov. (switch to Free French). Algeria is used as a base by the Allies in North Africa. Increases nationalism and the desire for democracy and independence.

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VE Day (5/8/45)

France celebrates Allied victory in WWII. Algerian nationalists use day that French were celebrating to stage a protest for Algerian independence. It spread violence and led to the Sétif Massacre.

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Sétif Massacre

A Massacre in Sétif spreading from the protests and celebrations of VE day. Pied noirs and French authorities have harsh responses. The violence by both. pied noirs and the Algerians spreads throughout Algeria, and is a large cause of the war. 15,000 Algerians die (per French), while Algerian nationalists say 45,000 die. Bombing of villages, civilians massacred, and moderate leaders that played no part in the massacre (like Abbas) were arrested.

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Loss of Vietnam/Indochina

France fights unsuccessful war to keep Indochina. Another. loss of territory that could have influenced France's wanting to keep Algeria.

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November 1954

An uprising occurs where small FLN guerrilla groups attack French military and government installations, police posts, radio station and telephone exchange, and French warehouses throughout Algeria. It is the outbreak of the Algerian War.

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Philippeville

City where 71 pied noirs were killed, many of them attacked in own homes and dragged out of their cars

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Battle of the Morice Line

French used a barricade between Tunisian and Moroccan borders in order to isolate FLN. The FLN fought back by placing bombs

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Battle of Algiers

  1. Battle where Algeria was fighting the French for independence, using torture tactics and placing bombs in cafes

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Barricades Week

extremists along the pied noirs set up barricades in the street

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Petit-Clamart

Most famous ambush attempt against De Gualle where he survived a barrage of machine gun fire

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The Day of the Jackal

Movie/book about the attempted assassination of De Gualle

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3 July 1962

Algeria became independent and the government in exile returned back to Algeirs

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Soummam Meeting

FLN first congress, developed a framework for a future independent state and discussed plans to accelerate the guerrilla campaign

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massacre in Paris (1961)

hundreds of demonstrators died in protests against the war and OAS violence that were brutally suppressed by the police.

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protest at the Charonne metro station

Anti-OAS protest in Paris where more civillians were brutally killed by police

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coup by generals in Algiers (1961)

four right-wing army generals (including General Salan) made an unsuccessful attempt to seize power in Algeria to prevent the French government from proceeding with plans to grant independence (the coup failed after four days).

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Foreign Legion

an army of mercenaries to assist French colonial expansion in Africa.

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