AP Psychology Chapter 3

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neuron

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120 Terms

1

neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

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dendrite

the bush, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

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glial cells

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons`

  • provide structural support

  • supply nourishment to neurons

  • insulation to axons and other cells

  • Help remove neurons’ waste products

  • Play role in development of nervous system in human embryo

  • May also send and receive signals

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Glia disorders

  • Dysfunction in glia cells may contribute to cognitiv impairment seen in schizo. Disorders + some forms of depressive disorders

  • Degeneration of glial tissue may lead to alzheimers

  • Key factor in chronic pain

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axon

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

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myelin sheath

a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly grater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

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action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

<p>a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon</p>
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cell body (soma)

contains nucleus, DNA, RNA, info that makes that cell what it is

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terminal branches of axon

form junctions with other cells

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threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

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synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and he dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

<p>the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and he dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron</p>
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reuptake

a neurotransmitter's re-absorption by the sending neuron

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endorphins

natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

  • Agonist: opiate dugs (morphine + heroin)

  • runner's high

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acetylcholine (ACh)

neurotransmitter that enables inv. muscle action, learning, arousal, and memory

  • excitatory

  • Agonst: nicotine

  • can produce excitatory + inhibitory

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ACh producing neurons

Alzheimer's disease - associated with a deterioration of . . . ?

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Dopamine (DA)

neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement

  • Low levels = Parkinson's Disease

  • High Levels = Schizophrenia

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dopamine receptor

schizophrenia is associated with an excess of this neurotransmitter's receptors

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dopamine

under-supply associated brain produced tremors and decreased mobility associated with Parkinson's disease

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serotonin

neurotransmitter that affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal

  • Abnormal levels may contribute to OCD + depression

  • Agonist: LSD

  • reuptake after serotonin is in synapse

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serotonin

under-supply associated with depression, Prozac raises level

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Norepinephrine

neurotransmitter that helps control alertness and arousal

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GABA + glycine

(neurotransmitter) depress/inhibit neural firing/central nervous system

  • agonist: Valium, anti-anxiety drugs + alcohol

<p>(neurotransmitter) depress/inhibit neural firing/central nervous system</p><ul><li><p>agonist: Valium, anti-anxiety drugs + alcohol</p></li></ul>
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GABA agnosts

Valium, anti-anxiety drugs + alcohol

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agonist

molecule similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor and mimic its effects

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antagonist

molecule similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor and block the neurotransmitter's functioning

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nervous system

the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

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central nervous system

the brain and spinal cord

<p>the brain and spinal cord</p>
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peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body. Made up of nerves that lie outside brain + spinal cord

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nerves

bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

<p>bundled axons that form neural &quot;cables&quot; connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs</p>
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somatic nervous system

made up of nerves that controls the voluntary movements of skeletal muscles

  • carry commands from CNS to muscles

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autonomic nervous system

part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs: heart, blood vessles, smooth muscles, glands

  • controlled by CNS

  • Controls automatic, involuntary, visceral functions

  • Two branches: sympathetic + parasympathtic

  • fight or flight

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parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

<p>the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy</p>
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endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

<p>the body&apos;s &quot;slow&quot; chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream</p>
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hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

<p>chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues</p>
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adrenal glands

a part of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress

<p>a part of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress</p>
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pituitary glands

the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

<p>the endocrine system&apos;s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands</p>
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lesion

tissue destruction; in the brain, a naturally or experimental caused destruction of brain tissue

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EEG

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

<p>an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain&apos;s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp</p>
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CT scan

a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of 3d brain. Portrays only structure Benefits:

  • reasonable

  • sees structure and what's phsycially wrong w/ brain

disadvantages

  • exposed to a lot fo x rays

  • drink contrast for scan --> some people can't tolerate that

<p>a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of 3d brain. Portrays only structure Benefits:</p><ul><li><p>reasonable</p></li><li><p>sees structure and what&apos;s phsycially wrong w/ brain</p></li></ul><p>disadvantages</p><ul><li><p>exposed to a lot fo x rays</p></li><li><p>drink contrast for scan --&gt; some people can&apos;t tolerate that</p></li></ul>
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PET scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

<p>a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task</p>
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MRI

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissues. Scans show brain structure

benefits:

  • more in-depth + clearer than ct

<p>a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissues. Scans show brain structure</p><p>benefits:</p><ul><li><p>more in-depth + clearer than ct</p></li></ul>
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fMRI

measures mvmt of blood molecules (index of neural acivity). Shows structure + function

<p>measures mvmt of blood molecules (index of neural acivity). Shows structure + function</p>
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brainstem

the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull. Responsible for automatic survival functions

<p>the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull. Responsible for automatic survival functions</p>
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reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

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thalamus

relay station for sensory info

  • All of sensory info except smell → goes from sense organ → through thalamus

<p>relay station for sensory info</p><ul><li><p>All of sensory info except smell → goes from sense organ → through thalamus</p></li></ul>
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cerebellum

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance

<p>the &quot;little brain&quot; at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance</p>
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limbic system

the overall system of the brain that regulates emotions and controls behavior. Includes the Hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and other structures. Donut-shaped neural system located below the cerebral hemisphere; associated with emotions and drives

<p>the overall system of the brain that regulates emotions and controls behavior. Includes the Hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and other structures. Donut-shaped neural system located below the cerebral hemisphere; associated with emotions and drives</p>
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amygdala

two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion --> specifically fear and anger but others as well

<p>two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion --&gt; specifically fear and anger but others as well</p>
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hypothalamus

a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several body maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward (4 Fs)

<p>a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several body maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward (4 Fs)</p>
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cerebral cortex

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information processing center

<p>the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body&apos;s ultimate control and information processing center</p>
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frontal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments

  • Prefrontal Cortex + Motor Cortex + Broca's Area

<p>portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments</p><ul><li><p>Prefrontal Cortex + Motor Cortex + Broca&apos;s Area</p></li></ul>
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parietal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; responsible for spacial orientation + touch

<p>portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; responsible for spacial orientation + touch</p>
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occipital lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; responsible for visual perception, including colour, form and motion.

<p>portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head;  responsible for visual perception, including colour, form and motion.</p>
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temporal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; auditory processing + hearing Primary Auditory Cortex + Wernicke's Area

<p>portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; auditory processing + hearing Primary Auditory Cortex + Wernicke&apos;s Area</p>
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motor cortex

mvmt of muscles frontal lobe

<p>mvmt of muscles frontal lobe</p>
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sensory cortex

an area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

<p>an area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations</p>
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Wernicke's area

controls language comprehension Temporal lobe

<p>controls language comprehension Temporal lobe</p>
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Broca's area

left frontal lobe production of speech

<p>left frontal lobe production of speech</p>
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visual cortex

interpreting incoming visual information

<p>interpreting incoming visual information</p>
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brain plasticity

the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience --> neural reorgininzation

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neurogenesis

the formation of new neurons

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corpus callosum

large bind of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

<p>large bind of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them</p>
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split brain

a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them

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chromosomes

threadlike strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules that carry genetic information

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DNA

a complex molecular containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

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genes

the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes and serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

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Terminal Buttons

small knobs that secrete neurotransmitters

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Synaptic vesicles

store various neurotransmitters

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absolute refractory period

min length of time after an action potential, during which another action potential/ impulse can not occur. After firing Action potential --> channels close up + time is needed before they are ready to open up again

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all or none law

a neuron either fires or it doesnt

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Presynaptic neuron

neuron that sends a signal across the gap

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postsynaptic neuron

neuron that recieves a signal

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postsynaptic potential

Graded (vary in size) and inc/dec the prob of a neural impulse being fired in the receiving cell in prop. to amnt of voltage change. Do not follow all-or-none law

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Inhibitory PSP

  • stop action potentials

  • negative voltage shift

  • Dec likelihood that postsynaptic neuron will fire AP

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Excitatory PSP

  • if it locks on → going to excite future cells + lots of more action potentials will happen → keep sending messages

  • positive voltage shift

  • Inc likelihood that postsynaptic neuron will fire AP

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synaptic pruning

brain eliminates extra synapses. cause neural restructuring that very likely has important consequences for normal and abnormal brain function

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Norepinephrine (NE)

  • excitatory

  • Contributes to mood + arousal

  • Cocaine elevates activity in NE synapse

  • People who suffer from depression appear to have lower levels of NE

  • Can produce excitatory or inhibitory effects at virtually all synapses

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Sympathetic Division

mobilizes body’s resources for emergencies

  • creates fight or flight

  • release of hormones that ready body for exertion

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parasympathetic Division

conserves bodily resources

  • Activates processes that allow body to save + store energy

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Fight or flight

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afferent nerves

axons that carry fiber info outward from body to CNS

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efferent nerves

axons that carry info outward from CNS to periphery of body

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spinal cord

  • Connects brain to rest of body through PNS

  • Houses bundles of axons that carry brain’s commands to

  • Most forms of paralysis result from spinal cord damage

  • Transmit signals from brain to neurons that signal body’s muscles to move

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cerebrospinal fluid

nourishes the brain + provides protective cushion for it

  • To enter: substances in blood have to cross blood-brain barrier - semipermeable membrane taht stops some chemicals from leaving bloodstream to enter brain

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electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)

sending weak electrical current into brain to stimulate/activate it

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James Olds' research on pleasure centers

  • investigating whether rats might be made uncomfortable by electrical stimulation of certain areas of their brain

  • electrical current given when rats enter certain part of cage to deter them

  • rats kept coming back + wanted to get shocked

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hindbrain

cerebellum, medulla, pons

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midbrain

reticular formation

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forebrain

cerebrum, cerebral cortex

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medulla

responsible for automatic functions

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pons

responsible for controlling sleep, dreams, sleep cycle, wakefulness

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cerebellum

responsible for balance, fine motor coordination

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Cerebrum

largest part of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, or halves, called the cerebral hemispheres. Areas within the cerebrum control muscle functions and also control speech, thought, emotions, reading, writing, and learning

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cerebral cortex

outermost layer of the brain that is associated with our highest mental capabilities

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somatosensory cortex

controls sensory info → only touch

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auditory cortex

Involves hearing, speaking, understanding written + verbal words

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Prefrontal Cortex

Reasoning, planning, paying attention, getting organises, decision making, impulse control

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homunculus brain map

  • organized map of the proportional representation of the contralateral somatosensory or motor neurons on the cortex or passing though a part of the brain

  • as information comes to the brain from different parts of the body, information from the hand will all synapse in this region of the cortex

<ul><li><p>organized map of the proportional representation of the contralateral somatosensory or motor neurons on the cortex or passing though a part of the brain</p></li><li><p>as information comes to the brain from different parts of the body, information from the hand will all synapse in this region of the cortex</p></li></ul>
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mirror neurons

use to incorporate info about body language, social cues, etc.

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left hemisphere

  • controls the right half of the body

  • Language - written and spoken

  • Simple math

  • Logical + analytical

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