Unit 9: Social Psychology

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attribution theory

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Psychology

30 Terms

1

attribution theory

we can attribute the behavior to the person’s stable enduring traits or we can attribute it to the situation

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2

fundamental attribution error

tendency to underestimate the power of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition (ex. you blame a driver for being a careless person for braking early but there was a duck crossing the road)

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3

self-serving bias

we take credit for success but deny responsibility for failure

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4

self-fulfilling prophecy

one’s belief coming true (ex. believing you’ll fail the test and then you actually fail rip)

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5

peripheral route of persuasion

using attention-getting cues to trigger emotion-based judgements (ex. putting BTS on an ad)

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6

central route of persuasion

offering evidence and arguments that trigger careful thinking and likely to cause lasting change (ex. buy milk because it’s healthy)

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7

foot in the door phenomenon

tendency for people to comply with a larger request after they have agreed to a small request

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8

Asch study

investigated how much social pressure it took for a person to conform by purposely getting everyone except the naive participant to say the wrong line that matches with the given line

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9

Milgram study

tested participant’s defiance or obedience to authority to shock the learner

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10

cognitive dissonance

when we are aware that our attitudes and actions don’t coincide, resulting in tension and anxiety (ex. I smoke to relax but I know I can get cancer)

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11

deindividuation

loss of self-awareness and restraint in a group, we feel anonymous in a group

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12

social facilitation

strong performance in the presence of others (ex. Lost at Sea activity)

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13

social loafing

tendency to exert less effort in a group task (ex. Tug-of-War)

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14

ingroup

people we share common identity with

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15

outgroup

“them”, people different from us

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16

groupthink

Mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives (lack of dissent)

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17

group polarization

enhancement of group’s prevailing inclinations through group discussions (ex. group of anti-racists talking together and become more anti-racist)

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18

explicit prejudice

direct and aware about having a negative attitude toward a group (ex. publicly saying racist comments)

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19

implicit prejudice

indirect and unaware/systematic prejudice (ex. landlord does background checks on African Americans than Caucasians)

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20

proximity

physical closeness can increase attraction

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21

similarity

the more similar you are to the person, the longer you like them

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22

self-disclosure

sharing intimate details brings you closer

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23

mere exposure effect

repeated exposure increases liking of a person

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24

frustration-aggression principle

aversive stimuli can evoke hostility (ex. hot temperatures, physical pain, etc.)

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25

bystander effect

tendency to be less likely to give aid if there are other bystanders present

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26

diffusion of responsibility

when multiple people are present, each individual feels less of a responsibility for the situation

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27

social exchange theory

social relationships are an exchange in which a participant tries to maximize benefits and minimize costs

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28

reciprocity norm

our expectation that people will help us if we help them

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29

social responsibility norm

one should assist those in need when possible

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30

superordinate goal

get people from opposing sides to come together and work toward a common end result

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