BME chapter 2 - Biomolecular Principles

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biological molecules used in biomedical engineering

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1

biological molecules used in biomedical engineering

proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids

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2

liposomes

lipid molecules assembled to aid in anticancer drugs.

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3

Ions

molecules with a net charge

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4

Ionic bonds

electrons being transferred from one atom to another

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5

cation

positively charged ion

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6

anion

negatively charged ion

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7

covalent bonds

sharing of electrons

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8

what are the charges of a H2O molecule?

oxygen is slightly negative, hydrogen is slightly positive

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9

gene delivery

act of transferring foreign DNA into a cell

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10

hydrogen bonds

when a partially positive hydrogen atom in a polar bond is attracted to a slightly negative atom (O, N, F) in a neighboring molecule, holds large molecules together

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11

what holds together macromolecules?

all atoms are held together by covalent or ionic bonds

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12

molecular complex

collections of molecules held together often by weak bonds (ie. hydrogen bonds) held together in a single unit

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13

enzymes

type of molecular complex that speeds up chemical conversions

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14

van der Waals interactions

weak noncovalent attraction, usually results from temporary and unequal electron distributions around atoms

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15

aqueous

water-rich

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16

hydrophobic effect

when hydrophobic molecules aggregate together to exclude water as best as they can, driving force in protein folding

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17

amphiphilic

molecules that contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups (ie. phospholipids used to make liposomes)

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18

acidosis

excess of acid in the body fluids, as may occur in kidney disease or diabetes

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19

adenosine 5’ triphosphate (ATP)

nucleotide that is the most important molecule for capturing and transferring free energy in cells, hydrolysis of each of the two high-energy phosphoanydride bonds in ATP is accompanied by a large energy change

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20

aquaporin

a water channel protein that allows water molecules to cross the cell membrane much more rapidly than through the phospholipid bilayer

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21

base

a compound usually containing nitrogen that can accept a proton

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22

chemical equilibrium

the state of a reaction when the forward and reverse reaction are occurring at the same time

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23

complementary sequence

a sequence the nucleotide bases of which match or hybridize (mirror image) with original sequence

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24

condensation

opposite of hydrolysis

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25

deoxyribose

5 carbon sugar of DNA

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26

endothermic

referring to a chemical concentration that absorbs heat

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27

enthalpy

a thermodynamic property of chemicals that indicates the amount of internal energy

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28

facilitated diffusion

protein-aided transport of molecules across a membrane down its concentration gradient

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29

first-order reaction

a reaction where all of the reaction rates are equal to the rate constant x concentration

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30

flux

rate of transfer fluid, particles, or energy across a given surface

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31

formation reaction

a chemical reaction that describes the formation of a compound from the most stable form of its components

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32

fructose

hexose sugar especially found in fruits

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33

galactose

hexose sugar that is a constituent of lactose and other polysaccharides

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34

genetic information

hereditary info that is carried by nucleic acids

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35

glucose

G6 H12 O6

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glycolipid

two hydrocarbon chains linked to a polar head group containing carbs

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glycoprotein

protein linked to oligosaccharides

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38

hybridization

the process of two single strands of DNA assembling into double-stranded DNA

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39

messenger RNA (mRNA)

a form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from RNA is transferred to the ribosome

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40

neutral

pH 7

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41

passive diffusion

water and small uncharged molecules (O2 and CO2) passing through the plasma membrane

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42

pentose

five-carbon sugar

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43

peptide

small polymer containing less than 30 amino acids

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44

polymerization

making polymers from a collection of monomers

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45

ribose

five-carbon sugar part of RNA

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46

transcription

process where genetic info contained represented as DNA nucleotides is copied into newly synthesized strands of RNA

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translation

process where a sequence of nucleotide triplets in mRNA gives rise to a specific sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis

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