Science Test. Macromolecules, Cell membrane and Enzymes. First (,) are common names.(read textbook 52-57

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Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates

Simple (sugars), (Uses)made of CHO, stores energy and helps structure. Monomer:Monosaccharides. Polymer:Polysaccharides. Ex glucose,starch bread cellulose

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Lipids

(Fats and oils), CHO (sometimes P).(uses)long term energy, insulation, protection and waterproofing. Made of one glycerol + 3 fatty acids. Ex Olive oil, wax, steroids, butter, cholestal, avocado oil.

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Proteins

(amino acids), CHON(sometimes S), (uses) builds muscles, skin and hair, speeds up chemical reactions, helps immune system and sends chemical medicine. Monomer: amino acids, Polymer: polypeptide. Ex: Hormones, antibodies, enzymes, HEMOGLOBIN.

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Nucleic acids

(Nucleotide), CHONP, (uses) transmits hereditary information and stores instruction for cells, Monomer: sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base, Polymer Deoxyribose and ribose. Made of a nitrogen base, sugar and a phosphate group. Ex:DNA and RNA

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Phospholipid

A lipid that contains phosphorus

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Saturated fats

Single bonded, solid at room temp, are usually bad for you(straight bond)

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unsaturated fats

Double bonded, liquid at room temp and are good for you.( connected bond)[diagonal}

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Hormones

help maintain homeostasis, thirst

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Macromolecules

Large molecules; polymers, monomers, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids

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Monosaccharides Simple sugar 1

simple sugars: glucose, galactose

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Disaccharides: Simple sugar 2

sucrose, lactose

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Polysaccharide

Glycogen (animals) Starch (plants) Cellulose (plants)

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Peptide bond

joins together to become a polypeptide

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Polypeptide

Folds polypeptides into the correct shape and become a protein

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Hemoglobin

a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color

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Chemical reactions

(Reactants) cellulose + oxygen. ---------> (reaction)=(products) Carbon dioxide + water vapor

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cellulose

what all cell membrane is made of

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Catalyst

speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy. It is not changed by the reaction.

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Enzyme

A biological catalyst,(Speeds up reactions by lowering the activation energy)

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Optimal Temperature

A certain temperature where the reaction rate is the highest.

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Optimal pH

A certain pH were the reaction rate is the highest.

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denature

When an enzyme passes optimal temperature or pH

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Endothermic

When energy is absorbed over the course of the reaction

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Exothermic

When energy is released over the course of the reaction

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Enzyme substrate complex

Where the enzyme and the substrate combined to either become a substrate and an enzyme or a enzyme and two products.

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Activation energy

The energy needed for the reactants to make a reaction

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Phospholipid bilayer

2 layers of the cell membrane made of Hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails

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Hydrophobic

Fatty and tails(lipid) fear of water

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Hydrophilic

phosphate head(likes water)

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Selectively permeable membrane(semi permeable)

some molecules can enter or exit but not both

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Simple diffusion

a type of passive transport that moving molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration does not use ATP. Way to maintain homeostasis.

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Facilitated diffusion

a type of passive transport that moving molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration does not use ATP. Uses protein channels or carrier proteins.

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Osmosis

a type of passive transport that moves water from a high concentration to a low concentration. Moves from Hypotonic to Hypertonic. Does not require ATP

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Hypertonic

When there are more solutes on one side

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Hypotonic

When there are more water molecules on the other side

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Isotonic

When the two sides of the membrane have equal solutes

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Lyse

To burst

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Osmosis Facilitated Diffusion

protein channel that uses aquaporin to move large amounts of water molecules

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polar molecules

slightly charged(reject non polar)

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non polar molecules

no charge(reject polar)

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Active transport

transport of a substance across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient. Low to high concentration that requires ATP.

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What does ATP turn into after it is used.

ATP turns into ADP

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Endocytosis

takes in larger molecules

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Exocytosis

(golgi) push out large molecules

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extracellular

outside the cell

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Intracellular

inside the cell

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Protein membrane function

Channels and pumps Some attached to cytoskeleton Some form receptors

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Carbohydrate membrane function

Act like identification cards

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Phagocytosis

larger molecules

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Pinocytosis

smaller substances

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DNA

genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents. AGTC

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RNA

single stranded genetic code AGUC

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Monomer

subunits of polymer

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Polymer

many monomers bonded together

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Dehydration Synthesis

The process of building monomers to build a polymer by removing water from the reactant side

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Hydrolysis

The process of breaking down a macromolecule into monomers

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Receptor

receives molecules

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