Biology Exam 3

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Global climate change

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199 Terms
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Global climate change

local changes in average weather conditions occurring all over the world

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Global Warming

the progressive increase of earth's average temperature over the last century

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Anthropogenic global warming

Human caused global warming

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greenhouse gasses

gasses that absorb and emit thermal energy

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The greenhouse effect

atmospheric greenhouse gasses trap energy from the sun

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Earth's atmosphere

insulating blanket of gasses including water vapor and carbon dioxide surrounding the earth

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Mars

thin atmosphere of mostly CO2,(-58) degrees fahrenheit average temp at earth's south pole

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Venus

super dense atmosphere, mostly CO2, (788) degrees fahrenheit, above melting temperature of lead

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Earth

intermediate density 0/04% CO2, (59) degrees fahrenheit just right for us

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What role does water vapor play in our current climate?

It helps keep the earth warm and habitable, and it responds to global warming caused by other factors

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What are the contributors of the greenhouse affect?

water vapor, co2,ozone,methane,etc

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Hydrogen bonds

attraction between neighboring water molecules

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Heat

the total amount of energy associated with movement of atoms and molecules

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temperature

measures the intensity of heat; how fast molecules move

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Carbon Cycle

carbon flows between living organisms, the atmosphere, bodies of water, and rock

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Carbon dioxide

absorbed by plants, algae and some bacteria, converted to carbohydrates with sunlight energy

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What do bodies of water do with heat?

absorb and store it, resists temperature changes

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9(humans)=4(atmosphere)+3(land plants)+2(oceans)

CO2 movement

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Fossil Fuels

highly concentrated energy sources, made of ancient buried organisms (plants and microbes mostly)

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How does fossil fuel use contribute to accumulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide?

petroleum, coal, and natural gas are burned for energy, releasing CO2

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How do they measure CO2?

analyzing air samples, measuring PPM(parts per million) of CO2

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Asexual Reproduction

one parent, offspring genetically identical to parent (in most cases)

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Sexual Reproduction

genetic material from two parents combine, offspring are genetically different from one another and from the parents

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DNA(deoxynucleic acid)

carries genes, section of DNA that codes for a particular trait

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Genes

a basic unit of hereditary information

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Chromosomes

made of DNA wrapped around proteins

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Sister chromatids

copied chromosomes with the same genes

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Where are sister chromatids attached?

attached at the centromere

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When does DNA replication occur?

before cell division

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semiconservative replications

how DNA replicates itself, a newly formed DNA strand, one half daughter

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DNA Polymerase

enzyme that assists DNA replication

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What do dark bands on chromosomes mean?

more DNA concentrated

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During which phase of the cell cycle does chromosomal DNA replicate?

Interphase

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Mitosis

asexual cell division produces two daughter cells that are identical to each other and the parent cell

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What cells does mitosis occur in?

somatic (non sex cells)

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Microtubules

tube shaped, provide structure and shape to eukaryotic cells, used for movement of chromosomes in mitosis

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Centrioles

cylindrical organelle made of protein, involved in arranging microtubules

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Poles

opposite ends of dividing cell

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Nuclear envelope

membrane surrounding the nucleus is a phospholipid bilayer

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Centromere

region (composed of a DNA sequence) that links a pair of sister chromatids

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Interphase

DNA replicates

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Mitosis

copied chromosomes moved into daughter nuclei

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Cytokinesis

parental cell

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Three phases of interphase

G1 (first gap or growth, cell grows), S (chromosomal DNA replicates), G2 (cell grows and prepares for mitosis

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What is the order of mitosis? and what happens after?

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, end of mitosis , (cytokinesis), (Please Make Another Tiny (cell))

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End of interphase

DNA has replicated but has not yet condensed into chromosomes

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Prophase

chromosomes condense (into sister chromatids)

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Metaphase

chromosomes align across middle of cell, moved by microtubules

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Anaphase

centromeres split

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Metaphase

nuclear envelopes reform around chromosomes in nuclei

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Cytokinesis

NOT a stage of mitosis, division of cytoplasm

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A cell undergoes mitosis and divides into two cells. One cell ends up with an extra chromosome, and the other cell has one less chromosome. At what stage would this error most likely have happened?

Metaphase and Anaphase

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Cytokinesis in animal cells

band of proteins encircle cell at equator, proteins contract (like tightening a belt) and pinch apart the original cell into two daughter cells

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Cytokinesis in plant cells

vesicles deliver materials for cell wall inflexible structure surrounding plant cells

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Cellulose

fibrous carbohydrate proteins (used in cell wall), think plant cells/cell plate

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Binary Fission

division of a single entity into two parts, a form of asexual reproduction

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What performs binary fission instead of mitosis?

bacteria and archaea

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Gametogenesis

production of gametes (genesis=production)

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Gametes

specialized male and female reproduction cells

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Meiosis

specialized cell division in sexually-reproducing organisms used to make gametes, occurs in gonads

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Gonad

sex organ

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Testes

in male

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Ovaries

in female

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How many chromosomes does a human somatic body cell have?

46 chromosomes

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How many chromosomes do human gametes have?

23 chromosomes

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Do homologous chromosomes always contain exactly the same genetic information?

No

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What always contains the same genetic information?

Sister chromatids (exact copies of each other)

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alleles

different versions of a gene

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Tetrad

two sets of chromosomes that have been replicated into their sister chromatids

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Human Chromosomes

displayed in magnified photograph arranged in 23 pairs by size

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Autosomes

22 are non sex chromosomes

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Haploid(n) cells:

contain one number of each homologous pair ex. gametes

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Diploid(2n) cells

contain two sets of chromosomes, ex. zygote

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Zygote

fertilized egg

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Meiosis 1

separates the homologous chromosomes into two separate cells

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Meiosis 2

separates the sister chromatids in each cell

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Prophase 1

nuclear envelope breaks down, microtubules begin to assemble, chromosomes condense

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Crossing over

exchange of information between homologous chromosomes, gametes can contain individual chromosomes with genetic information from both parents

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Would crossing over create new combinations of alleles if it occurred between sister chromatids?

No, you’d get the exact same result on both sides

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Metaphase 1

homologous pairs line up at equator, random alignment

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random alignment:

members of homologous pairs are arbitrarily arranged go face a pole, results in genetically diverse gametes

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Anaphase 1

Microtubules shorten, homologous pairs separate

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Telophase 1

Nuclear envelope reforms around chromosomes

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Cytokinesis

DNA is partitioned into each daughter cell, haploid cells

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