bio cell cycle flashcards

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Haploid

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27 Terms

1

Haploid

  • (n) have one copy of each homologous chromosome (one from each parent)

    • Sex cells/Gamete cells in humans

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2

Diploid

(2n) have two pairs of homologous chromosomes

  • Body cells/Somatic cells in humans

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3

Somatic

Body cells, diploids

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4

Gamete

Sex cells, haploid

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5

Sexual reproduction

Cells from two parents combine to form a new cell of a new organism

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6

Asexual reproduction

Single parent produces offspring with identical genetic info

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7

Chromosome

Thin, compact, threadlike structures within the nucleus that has genetic info to be passed onto the offspring

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8

Chromatin

In eukaryotic chromosomes, substance made of DNA coiled around the histone

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9

Histone

A protein that DNA wraps around to give a chromosome its shape

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10

Sister chromatids

Genetically identical chromosomes duplicates

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11

Homologous chromosomes

Same size, shape, and types of genes

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12

Cell Cycle

series of events in which a cell grows, prepares to divide, and divides to form two daughter cells (interphase, PMAT, cytokinesis)

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13

Mitosis

nucleus divides, PMAT, creates SOMATIC CELLS

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14

M (mitotic) phase

cell division, 2 stage process

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15

Centromere

Region where two sister chromatids meet/attach

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16

Centrosome

Region near the nucleus in the cytoplasm which contains the centrioles (which form spindle fibers)

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17

Spindle fibers

Make up the mitotic spindle, attach to chromosomes during metaphase and pull chromatids opposite ways during anaphase (separates the chromosomes)

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18

Cell plate

IN A PLANT CELL, formed when cytoplasm is split in half

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19

Cleavage furrow

IN AN ANIMAL CELL, formed when cytoplasm is split in half

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20

male sex chromosomes

XY, two different sister chromatids (different sizes)

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21

female sex chromosomes

XX, identical sizes

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22

Interphase

LONGEST STAGE OF CELL CYCLE, ENDS IN PARENT CELL

G1: cell growth before DNA duplication

S: DNA duplication

G2: cell prepares for division

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23

Prophase

Nucleus is still there, chromosomes visible and condensing, spindles begin forming

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24

Metaphase

Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, spindle fibers fully formed

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25

Anaphase

Chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell (moving towards the poles) w/ the help of spindle fibers

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26

Telophase

Chromosomes are at complete opposite ends, new nuclei forming on each side to make these two new cells, SPINDLES DISAPPEAR

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27

Cytokinesis

SPLITS CYTOPLASM

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