Klein Citizens Test 2023 (copy)

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He was the last leader to cross the English Channel and successfully invade England, bringing with him the French language that would combine with the local Germanic languages and for English.

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1

He was the last leader to cross the English Channel and successfully invade England, bringing with him the French language that would combine with the local Germanic languages and for English.

William the Conqueror

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2

Synonymous with the Chinese way of life, his philosophy stresses obligations over rights and puts an emphasis on honoring elder family members.

Confucius

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3

He promoted germ theory and developed the concept of preventative inoculation, which may have been the most important breakthrough in the history of medicine.

Louis Pasteur

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4

The Soviet leader who was chiefly responsible for ending communism there, with his policies of “perestroika” and “glasnost.”

Mikhail Gorbachev

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5

Young Japanese emperor who effectively eliminated the Samurai by modernizing the country in the late 19th century.

Meiji Tenno

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6

One of the great composers of opera of all time, his works also increased anti-Semitism in Europe.

Richard Wagner

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7

The greatest of all Roman military generalists who was later emperor for less than a year before being assassinated by Roman senators.

Julius Caesar

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8

Invented the printing press, which revolutionized the transmission of knowledge and ideas, created widespread literacy and facilitated the onset of the Renaissance.

Johan Gutenberg

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9

Wrote “The Prince” and said basically that the ends justify the means.

Niccolo Machiavelli

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10

The Chinese eunuch that invented paper.

Ts’ai Lun

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11

Regarded as perhaps the greatest President ever, he kept the country from disintegrating during the Civil War and ended slavery in the process.

Abraham Lincoln

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12

Man of peace who led India to its independence from British colonial rule - developed the concept of non-violent resistance through civil disobedience.

Ghandi

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13

Father of “analytical engine” - the technology behind the modern computer.

Charles Babbage

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14

First great fighter for women’s rights in England, wrote “A Vindication of the Rights of Women,” and she also was the mother of the author of “Frankenstein” (though she died giving birth and never knew her child).

Mary Wollstonecraft

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15

Dutch artist recognized for his specialty portraits, including his famous self-portrait.

Rembrandt

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16

The first Protestant-born ruler of England, then became its greatest most adored Monarch in British history, while laying the foundation for the empire.

Queen Elizabeth I

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17

Immeasurably brilliant, he developed the theories of relativity, and technology behind the television, and the development of the atomic bomb.

Albert Einstein

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18

Ancient Greek military genius who never lost a battle - and then died of a fever, though his tomb is lost (his body is said to be preserved in honey wherever it is.)

Alexander the Great

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19

The foundation of Christianity - people were awestruck by his personality and his message was spread by the apostles instead of his own writings.

Jesus Christ

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20

Founder of the Islamic religion and Arab Empire.

Muhammad

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21

Father of psychoanalysis, he originated concepts of id/ego/superego and emphasized the role of the subconscious as it Pertains to the Oedipus Complex.

Sigmund Freud

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22

Diminutive French general and emperor who was a poor politician and grand strategist for the empire, but he was a magnificent battle tactician - ultimately defeated at Waterloo.

Napoleon Bonaparte

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23

Author of “The Origin of Species,” his data collection and observations connect him immediately to the theory of evolution through natural selection.

Charles Darwin

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24

The most successful architect ever, an American with a monstrous ego caught his break when his buildings withstood The Great Tokyo Quake of 1923 and he came known for Prairie Style architecture, where the structures blend seamlessly into their surrounding natural environments.

Frank Lloyd Wright

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25

He is considered the most talented author of the English language and his plays and sonnets are the most widely read and quoted Works ever because they are so translatable to any time and any place in history.

Shakespeare

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26

She unknowingly set Spain backwards hundreds of years by sanctioning the Inquisition, and also financed Columbus.

Queen Isabella I

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27

Russia’s first truly great czar, this unusually tall man forced Russia to modernize and westernize by traveling incognito through Europe.

Peter the Great

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28

As the first emperor of China, he built the Great Wall -  and failed to live forever, but at least he protected himself well in the spirit world with a clay army.

Qin Shi Huang

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29

The writer/philosopher/historian that developed the idea of communism by writing "The Communist Manifesto,” and “Das Capital.”

Karl Marx

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30

World War II American president credited with getting the country out of the Depression, partly through the New Deal and also the first to communicate directly with the citizens through his Fireside Chats - and served into his record 4th term.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

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31

One of the most highly regarded inventors ever, he is credited with the light bulb and movie projector while being known for his obsession and work habits and said, “Genius is 2% inspiration and 98% perspiration."

Thomas Edison

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32

The English philosopher whose ideas of individual freedom ironically helped form the basis for the U.S. Declaration of Independence.

John Locke

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33

He revitalized Germany after World War I, started World War II, and masterminded the Holocaust while leading the Nazi Party.

Adolf Hitler

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34

Leader of the original communist movement in China and developer of some of the most magnificently failed policies in history like the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.

Mao

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35

Revolutionary leader that liberated five South American countries from Spanish colonial rule, including his native Venezuela where then became the ruler.

Simon Bolivar

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36

A key fundraiser in the creation of Israel, this hard-nosed lady then became it's only female prime minister, while hiding Leukemia the whole time in office and confronting the first episode of modern international terrorism.

Golda Meir

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37

As a highly educated radical, he led the Communist Revolution in Russia, which he created the Soviet Union - even though he spent part of his earlier life in exile and Siberia. Died only a few years after becoming the first Soviet dictator.

Lenin

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38

Greek philosopher who was a virtual walking encyclopedia, the expert on almost every topic (even though we now dispute some of his assumptions) - and he also tutored a great warrior.

Aristotle

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39

Author of “The Iliad,” and “The Odyssey” -  the longest lasting texts in history.

Homer

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40

Greek philosopher who delighted in pestering people by questioning their beliefs, but was sentenced to death for corrupting the minds of the youth.

Socrates

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41

Tiny Albanian woman who was the ultimate giver, she sought the world's most desperate populations to help and believed staunchly that nobody should die alone - so she moved to crowded Calcutta to help as many people as possible.

Mother Teresa

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42

History's Premiere sculptor (King David), he was a work-a-holic that was also an architect, painter (Sistine Chapel), and a poet.

Michelangelo

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43

First person to win multiple Nobel Prizes - she discovered polonium and radium, which may have unlikely killed this Polish scientist.

Marie Curie

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44

Courageous Italian explorer who accidentally “discovered” the Americas for Spain and went on to destroy an entire civilization in the Caribbean.

Columbus

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45

Dutch impressionist whose paintings are the world's most valuable, though he lived out a life of misery ending in an agonizing suicide at a mental institution.

Vincent Van Gogh

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46

Versatile founding father who is notable for his work in business, politics, literature, and science - while inventing bifocals and the lightning rod.

Benjamin Franklin

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47

A pacifist that was educated in Russia, made a fortune from inventing dynamite, and because he had no family, he left his fortune to be distributed to the humanitarian award winners.

Alfred Nobel

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48

She founded Planned Parenthood and birth control, after being terrified her mother would die during one of her 18 pregnancies.

Margaret Sanger

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49

Voted “Man of the Half-Century,” he led England to victory in World War II as their prime minister, but he was also a Nobel Prize winning author in history with a sharp wit and a far lesser reputation among the distant reaches of the British empire.

Winston Churchill

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50

Young girls who used voices and Visions she was having to become a French icon for leading her troops in defense of her king, but was eventually burned at the stake by the British when she was still a teenager.

Jeanne d’Arc

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51

A victorious barbarian, he was enslaved as a young boy, and then led his “Golden Hoard" toward what would become the world's largest land empire ever after conquering everything from China across Asia and into Europe about 800 years ago.

Genghis Khan

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52

As the second caliph of Islamic history, he oversaw the fastest expansion of any religion ever throughout the Middle East and Northern Africa.

Umar

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53

The designer of the Saturn rocket and the V-1 and V-2 rockets for the Nazis, and then ran much of NASA space program that took Americans to the moon.

Werner Von Braun

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54

Military General that led his colonial people and their rag-tag army in a revolution against mighty England and then became his new nation's first president, an office created specifically for him and his leadership talents.

George Washington

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55

A brutal and sadistic Soviet dictator in the 1930s and 1940s, he established his country as one of the world's 2 superpowers, but did so through legendary cruelty, most notably through forced mass starvation in Ukraine.

Stalin

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56

A deeply religious man, he offended the church and lived out his life under house arrest after announcing his scientific findings about the universe and planets (after developing his own super powerful telescope), he developed his the scientific method and contributed to understanding of the world with his famous experiments.

Galileo Galilei

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57

He opposed the hypocritical selling of Indulgences in the Catholic Church in Europe, protested by posting his “95 theses,” which started the Protestant Reformation.

Martin Luther

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58

Prior to being executed by his friend (Henry VIII) for not granting divorce, he wrote “Utopia,” and was the ultimate example of a man of honesty and conscience.

St. Thomas More

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59

He is noted as being the most intellectual of American presidents, and wrote the Declaration of Independence while later negotiating the Louisiana Purchase.

Thomas Jefferson

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60

Leader of the Civil Rights Movement in America, who promoted civil disobedience and was assassinated at a garbage collector’s strike in 1968.

Martin Luther King Jr.

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61

Most popular First Lady in U.S. history, she wrote the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a representative to the United Nations and worked as a newspaper columnist while living in the White House.

Eleanor Roosevelt

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62

20th century Spanish artist who produced over 20,000 pieces of art in a variety of styles, he is known for cubism and abstract art and living the high life of an international celebrity.

Pablo Picasso

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63

The first Nobel Prize winner, he founded the International Red Cross and the International YMCA.

Henri Durant

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64

Polish scientist that proposed the radical theory that the sun (not the earth) was at the center of our solar system - though this discovery was not released until the day he died.

Copernicus

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65

While working with the deaf, which included both his mother and his wife, he invented the telephone and parlayed that into founding AT&T.

Alexander Graham Bell

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66

The only female leader of an Islamic country, she was assassinated in 2007, just before having the chance to win the elections and return to power again in Pakistan.

Benazir Bhutto

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67

Considered the greatest scientist who ever lived, he invented calculus and worked with gravity, optics, and physics - and is the first scientist buried at Westminster Abbey.

Isaac Newton

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68

First woman who wore makeup - used her looks to get what she wanted.

Cleopatra

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69

Cleans up Rome and promotes families.

Augustus Caesar

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70

Only wore black after the death of her husband. Ran the biggest and most successful empire to date.

Queen Victoria

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71

Prince from Northern India that meditates and becomes enlightened.

Buddha

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72

Founded the 10 commandments and got all jews out of slavery.

Moses

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73

She was a child prostitute that then became one of the most adored first lady’s of Argentina.

Eva Duarte Peron

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74

Diagnosed with ALS at age 21 and went on the be a theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author.

Stephen Hawking

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75

President of South Africa who protested against racial segregation using non-violent methods.

Nelson Mandela

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76

Created the Mona Lisa, The Last Super, and St. John the Baptist.

Leonardo da Vinchi

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77

Mathematician who came up with the x and y coordinate plane. Philosopher in the Renaissance.

Rene Descartes

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78

Wrote 36 book and founded the first real school.

Plato

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79

Emperor of China and the creator of the first unified Chinese empire.

Shih Huang Ti

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80

“Yes I am - and ma’am, you are ugly. But tomorrow I will be sober.”

Winston Churchill

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81

“Workers of the world: unite!”

Karl Marx

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82

“Ordinary men need ordinary rules; I am not ordinary.”

Frank Lloyd Wright

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83

“A single death is a tragedy; a million deaths is a statistic.”

Stalin

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84

“For a ruler, it is far better to be feared than loved.”

Niccolo Machiavelli

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85

“The unexamined life is not worth living.”

Socrates

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86

“Nobody can ever make you feel inferior without your permission.”

Eleanor Roosevelt

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87

**BONUS: College Basketball coach that set an all-time record by winning 14 straight conference championships, while racking up 4 Final Fours, 2 national championships, and owns a 57-11 combined record against Missouri and K-State.

Bill Self

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