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Cells

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Cells

the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. significant in terms of reproduction, growth, heredity, structure and functions.

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Eukaryotic cells

have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

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Prokaryotic cells

cells that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles

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Prokaryotic cells

Which type of cell... Chromosomes are single circular DNA

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Prokaryotic cell

Which type of cell... plasmid is the Extrachromosomal DNA

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Prokaryotic cell

Which type of cell... Goes through binary fission

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Eukaryotic cells

Which type of cell... Chromosomes are paired linear DNA

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Eukaryotic cells

Which type of cell... mitochondria or chloroplast is the Extrachromosomal DNA

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Eukaryotic cells

Which type of cell... Goes through mitosis or meiosis

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Plant cell

contains a cell wall, chloroplast, plastids, and large vacuole

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Plant cell

Centrioles, centrosomes, and cilia/flagella are absent

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Animal cell

does not have a cell wall, chloroplast, plastids and a small vacuole

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cell membrane

Outer membrane of cell that controls cellular traffic;

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cell membrane

is made up of two lipid layers called a "bilipid" membrane

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Phospholipids

made up of a number of fatty acid building blocks.

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Cytoplasm

the gel-like fluid inside the cell. It is the medium for chemical reaction. It provides a platform upon which other organelles can operate within the cell.

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cytoskeleton

Composed of microtubules. Support cell and provides shape. Aids movement of materials in and out

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Centrioles

A barrel-shaped organelle which lives normally within the centrosome.

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Centrioles

physical objects made up of things called microtubules And are very important for cell division.

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Cilia and Flagella

Tiny hair-like projections from the cell made of microtubules and covered by the plasma membrane

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vacuoles

help sequester waste products. help maintain water balance.

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Golgi apparatus

Protein packaging plant;

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Golgi apparatus

A membrane structure found near nucleus w/c is composed of numerous flattened layers of sacks.

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

Tubular network fused to nuclear membrane goes through cytoplasm onto cell membrane. Stores, separates, & serves as cell's transport system;

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ribosome

It serve as the protein production machinery for the cell and are consequently most abundant in cells that are active in protein synthesis, such as pancreas and brain cells.

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Microbodies

diverse group of organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of almost all cells, roughly spherical, and bound by a single membrane.

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Microbodies

lysosomes and peroxisomes are examples of...

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Peroxisomes

It contain a variety of enzymes, which primarily function together to rid the cell of toxic substances, & in particular, hydrogen peroxide

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Lysosomes

Digestive organelle for proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates; Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal.

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Mitochondria

Second largest organelle with unique genetic structure; Power house of the cell

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Mitochondria

Double-layered outer membrane with inner folds called cristae

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Nucleus

It is surrounded by porous nuclear membrane and are filled with fluid nuclear sap in which chromosomes & one or more nucleoli float.

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Chromosomes

Thread like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells

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Chromosomes

Contains genetic information. Composed of DNA

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Cytoskeleton

Composed of microtubules Supports cell and provides shape; Aids movement of materials in and out.

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Cytosol

the matrix in which organelles and membrane systems are suspended and biochemical events occur.

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DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms

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Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA means...

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RNA (ribonucleic acid)

often single stranded. A molecule that has a backbone made of alternating phosphate groups and the sugar ribose.

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Ribonucleic acid

RNA means...

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Tissues

a level of organization in multicellular organisms, it consists of a group of structurally and functionally similar cells and their intercellular material.

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epithelial tissue

Covers the outside of the body and lines the internal organs and cavities. Barrier against mechanical injury, invasive microorganisms, and fluid loss. Provides surface for absorption, excretion and transport of molecules.

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simple squamous epithelium

Consists of a single layer tightly packed, flattened cells with a disk shaped central nucleus

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Air sacs of the lungs, kidney glomeruli, lining of the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.

Simple squamous epithelium location:

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Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration.

Simple squamous epithelium Function

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simple cuboidal epithelium

Consists of a single layer of tightly packed, cube shaped cells.

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Kidney tubules, ducts and small glands, and a surface of ovary.

Simple cuboidal epithelium location:

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Secretion and absorption.

Simple cuboidal epithelium function:

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simple columnar epithelium

Consists of a single layer of elongated cells. Contains goblet cells that secretes mucus

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Lines of digestive tract, gallbladder and excretory ducts of some glands

simple columnar epithelium location:

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Absorption, enzyme secretion

simple columnar epithelium function:

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pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

A tuft of cilia tops each columnar cell, except for goblet cells

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Lines the bronchi, uterine tubes and some regions of the uterus

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Location:

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Propels mucus or reproductive cells by ciliary action

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium function:

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stratified squamous epithelium

Consists of many layers of cells

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Lines the esophagus, mouth, and vagina. Keratinized variety lines the surface of the skin.

stratified squamous epithelium location:

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Protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion.

stratified squamous epithelium function:

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connective tissue

Binds structures together, form of a framework and support for organs and the body as a whole

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connective tissue

store fat, transport substance, protect against disease, and help repair tissue damage.

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adipose tissue

contain large fat droplets that push the nuclei close to the plasma membrane.

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Around kidneys, under the skin, in bones, within abdomen, and in breasts.

adipose tissue location:

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Provides reserve fuel (lipids), insulates against heat loss, and supports and protects organs

adipose tissue function:

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loose connective tissue

Consists numerous fibroblasts that produces collagenous and elastic fibers

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Widely distributed under the epithelia of the human body

loose connective tissue Location:

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Wraps and cushions organs

loose connective tissue function:

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fibrous connective tissue

Consists largely of tightly packed collagenous fibers.

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Dermis of the skin, sub

mucosa of the digestive tract, and fibrous capsules of organs and joints

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Provides structural strength.

fibrous connective tissue function:

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bone osseous tissue

Bone matrix is deposited in concentric layers around osteonic canals.

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bones

bone osseous tissue location:

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Supports, protects, provides lever system for muscles to act on, stores calcium and fat, and forms blood cells.

bone osseous tissue function:

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Transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, hormones, minerals, vitamins and other substances

Blood function:

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Within blood vessels.

blood location:

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Red blood cells

Transports O2

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White blood cells

fights infection

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platelets

suspended in an intercellular fluid (plasma), prevents clotting of blood.

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between bones

Cartilage tissue location:

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a strong, flexible connective tissue that protects your joints and bones. It acts as a shock absorber throughout your body

Cartilage tissue function:

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nervous tissue

main tissue of our nervous system. It monitors and regulates the function of the body.

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nervous tissue

Neurons transmit electrical signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands.

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Brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

nervous tissue Location:

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Transmits electrical signals from sensory receptors to the spinal cord or brain, and from the spinal cord or brains to effectors (muscles and glands).

nervous tissue Function:

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muscle tissue

Composed of cells that have the special ability to shorten or contract in order to produce movement of the body parts

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skeletal muscle tissue

composed of striated muscle fibers (cells) that are long and cylindrical and contain many peripheral nuclei

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In skeletal muscles attached to bones

skeletal muscle tissue location:

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Voluntary movement, locomotion

skeletal muscle tissue function:

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smooth muscle tissue

formed of spindle - shaped cells, each containing a single centrally located nucleus.

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Mostly in the walls of hollow organs.

smooth muscle tissue location:

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Moves substances or objects (foodstuffs, urine, a baby) along internal passageways; involuntary control.

smooth muscle tissue function:

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cardiac muscle tissue

Consists of branched striated cells, each containing a single nucleus and specialized cell junctions called intercalated disks that allow ions to move quickly from cell to cell. Found in the heart

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The walls of the heart

cardiac muscle tissue Location:

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As the wall of the heart contract, cardiac muscle tissue propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control.

cardiac muscle tissue Function:

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Simple Squamous Epithelium

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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

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adipose tissue

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blood

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bone

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bone

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cardiac muscle tissue

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cardiac muscle tissue

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