psychology units 3+4 review

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Sensation

1 / 120

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
121
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
121 Terms
1
New cards

Sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

New cards
2
New cards

Perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize

New cards
3
New cards

Bottom-up Processing

analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information

New cards
4
New cards

Top-down Processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations

New cards
5
New cards

Psychophysics

the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them

New cards
6
New cards

Absolute Threshold

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time

New cards
7
New cards

Signal Detection theory

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background (noise). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue

New cards
8
New cards

Subliminal

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

New cards
9
New cards

Priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response

New cards
10
New cards

Difference Threshold

the minimum difference between two stimuli requires for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience this as a just noticeable difference or (jnd)

New cards
11
New cards

Weber's Law

the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)

New cards
12
New cards

Sensory Adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

New cards
13
New cards

Transduction

conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.

New cards
14
New cards

Wavelength

the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission

New cards
15
New cards

Hue

the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names, blue, green. etc

New cards
16
New cards

Intensity

the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude

New cards
17
New cards

Pupil

the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

New cards
18
New cards

Iris

a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

New cards
19
New cards

Lens

the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

New cards
20
New cards

Retina

the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and coned plug layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

New cards
21
New cards

Accommodation

the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

New cards
22
New cards

Rods

retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond

New cards
23
New cards

Cones

retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. They detect detail and give rise to color sensations

New cards
24
New cards

Optic Nerve

the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the top of the brain

New cards
25
New cards

Blind Spot

the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye. No receptor cells are located there

New cards
26
New cards

Fovea

the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster

New cards
27
New cards

Feature Detectors

nerve cells in the brain that respond to the specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

New cards
28
New cards

Parallel Processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.

New cards
29
New cards

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory

the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors - one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue - which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color

New cards
30
New cards

Opponent- Process Theory

the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green

New cards
31
New cards

Audition

the sense or act of hearing

New cards
32
New cards

Frequency

the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second)

New cards
33
New cards

Pitch

a tone's experienced highness or lowness, depends on frequency

New cards
34
New cards

Middle Ear

the chamber between the eardrum and the cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval windows

New cards
35
New cards

Cochlea

a coiled, bony fluid-filled the in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.

New cards
36
New cards

Inner Ear

the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.

New cards
37
New cards

Place Theory

in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

New cards
38
New cards

Frequency Theory

in hearing the theory that the rate of nerves impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch

New cards
39
New cards

Conduction Hearing Loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea

New cards
40
New cards

sensorineural Hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness

New cards
41
New cards

Cochlear Implant

a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

New cards
42
New cards

Kinesthesis

the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

New cards
43
New cards

Vestibular Sense

the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance

New cards
44
New cards

Gate-Control Theory

the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that clocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.

New cards
45
New cards

Sensory Interaction

the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste

New cards
46
New cards

Gestalt

an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes

New cards
47
New cards

Figure-ground

the organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surrounding

New cards
48
New cards

Grouping

the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

New cards
49
New cards

Depth Perception

the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance

New cards
50
New cards

Visual Cliff

a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

New cards
51
New cards

Binocular Cues

depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes

New cards
52
New cards

Retinal Disparity

a binocular cue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance - the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object

New cards
53
New cards

Monocular Cues

depth cues, such as interposition and liner perspective, available to either eye alone.

New cards
54
New cards

Phi Phenomenon

an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in a quick succession

New cards
55
New cards

Perceptual Constancy

Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, size, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change

New cards
56
New cards

Color Constancy

perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object

New cards
57
New cards

Perceptual Adaptation

in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

New cards
58
New cards

Perceptual Set

a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.

New cards
59
New cards

Bipolar Cells

part of the eye activated when light energy triggers chemical changes to spark neural signals, which then activate ganglion cells

New cards
60
New cards

Ganglion Cells

activated by bipolar cells in the eye, these axons twine together to form strands of the optic nerve

New cards
61
New cards

Pathway to the visual cortex

ganglion axons forming the optic nerve run to the thalamus, where they synapse with neurons that run to the visual cortex

New cards
62
New cards

Color-Blind vision

people may suffer from red-green deficiency or have trouble with perception of a number within a design.

New cards
63
New cards

Proximity

grouping nearby figures together

New cards
64
New cards

continuity

grouping smooth continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones

New cards
65
New cards

closure

filling in gaps to create a complete, whole object

New cards
66
New cards

Relative luminance or Relative brightness or Light & Shadow

the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings

New cards
67
New cards

connectedness

Gestalt grouping principle; when objects uniform (in color or texture) are linked (no space exists between them) we perceive them as a single unit

New cards
68
New cards

similarity

the tendency to perceive things that look alike as being part of the same group

New cards
69
New cards

linear perspective

A monocular cue for perceiving depth; the more parallel lines converge, the greater their perceived distance.

New cards
70
New cards

relative height

we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away

New cards
71
New cards

relative size

a monocular cue for perceiving depth; the smaller retinal image is farther away

New cards
72
New cards

interposition

if one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer

New cards
73
New cards

texture gradient

a monocular cue for perceiving depth; a gradual change from a coarse distinct texture to a fine, indistinct texture signals increasing distance. objects far away appear smaller and more densely packed

New cards
74
New cards

relative clarity

a monocular cue for perceiving depth; hazy objects are farther away than sharp, clear objects

New cards
75
New cards

learning

any relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience

New cards
76
New cards

associative learning

when organisms learn that two certain events occur together. two variations of associative learning are classical conditioning and operant conditioning

New cards
77
New cards

classical conditioning

learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes capable of triggering a conditioned response after having become associated with an unconditioned stimulus

New cards
78
New cards

behaviorism

The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes; Watson.

New cards
79
New cards

unconditioned response

In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

New cards
80
New cards

unconditioned stimulus

the stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers the reflexive unconditioned response

New cards
81
New cards

conditioned response

the learned response to previously neutral conditioned stimulus, which results from the acquired association between CS and US

New cards
82
New cards

conditioned stimulus

an originally neutral stimulus that comes to trigger a CR after association with an US

New cards
83
New cards

acquisition

the initial stage of conditioning in which the new response is established and gradually strengthened.

New cards
84
New cards

the strengthening of a reinforced response (operant)

New cards
85
New cards

extinction

weakening of a CR when the CS is no longer followed by the US;

New cards
86
New cards

operant- when the behaviour is no longer reinforced

New cards
87
New cards

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

New cards
88
New cards

generalization

The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.

New cards
89
New cards

discrimination

the ability to distinguish the CS from similar stimuli that do not signal a US

New cards
90
New cards

operant conditioning

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.

New cards
91
New cards

respondent behavior

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning

New cards
92
New cards

operant behavior

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

New cards
93
New cards

law of effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

New cards
94
New cards

operant chamber

in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking.

New cards
95
New cards

shaping

operant conditioning; procedure for establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behaviour.

New cards
96
New cards

reinforcer

any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

New cards
97
New cards

positive reinforcement

Presentation of a stimulus after a particular response in order to increase the likelihood that the response will recur

New cards
98
New cards

negative reinforcement

Removal of an aversive stimulus after a particular response to increase the likelihood that the response will recur

New cards
99
New cards

primary reinforcers

In and of themselves, rewarding things. (food, water, rest.) Natural properties are rewarding.

New cards
100
New cards

conditioned reinforcers

learned reinforcers, such as money, that develop their reinforcing properties because of their association with primary reinforcers

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 157 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4311 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(39)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard115 terms
studied byStudied by 47 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard42 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard66 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard146 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard43 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)