Pysch 8-10

studied byStudied by 19 people
5.0(2)
get a hint
hint

recall

1 / 149

Tags and Description

150 Terms

1

recall

measure of memory where person must retrieve info learned earlier with no retrieval cue (ex. president list, fill in the blank quiz)

New cards
2

recognition

measure of memory where person only needs to identify items previously learned with retrieval cues (ex. snow white dwarfs with list)

New cards
3

relearning

measure of memory that assesses amount of time saved when learning material again (ex. studying for final exam)

New cards
4

encoding

processing info into memory system, get info (ex. extracting meaning)

New cards
5

storage

process of retaining encoded info overtime

New cards
6

retrieval

process of getting info out of memory storage

New cards
7

Info-processing model/Multi store model

made by Atkinson and Shiffrin, believes brain is like a computer, process of encoding, storage, and retrieval

New cards
8

parallel processing

processing many aspects of problem simultaneously

New cards
9

connectionism/levels of processing model

info processing model by Alan Baddely, views memory as products of interconnected neural networks, specific memories arise from particular activation pattern in network, focus on parallel processing, memories based on how important info is

New cards
10

sensory memory

immediate very brief recording of sensory info in memory system (MSM)

New cards
11

short term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly (MSM) (ex. phone number)

New cards
12

long term memory

relatively permanent and limitless store-house of memory system, includes knowledge, skills, experiences (MSM and LOP)

New cards
13

working memory

newer understanding of short term memory focus on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory/visual spacial info and info retrieved from long term memory (LOP)

New cards
14

central executive

responsible for focused processing/attention (LOP)

New cards
15

effortful processing

encoding requires attention and conscious effort, explicit memories

New cards
16

explicit memories (declarative processing)

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare, follows bottom track through short term memory to long term, in hippocampus (MSM) (ex. “what’s your favorite color”)

New cards
17

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental info directly into storage, top track (MSM) (ex. space, time, frequency, word meanings)

New cards
18

implicit memories (non-declarative memories)

retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection, can be automatic or bottom track, in cerebellum (MSM) (ex. how to drive a car)

New cards
19

procedural memory

automatic skills, implicit memory (ex. how to drive a car)

New cards
20

association

classical conditioning, implicit memory

New cards
21

iconic memory

momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, photographic memory lasting no more than few-tenths of a sec, George Spirling, sensory memory

New cards
22

echoic memory

momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli, if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can be recalled within 3/4 secs, sensory memory (ex. ask “what” then respond to question)

New cards
23

George Miller

store about 7 +/-2 bits of info in short term memory

New cards
24

chunking

organize items into familiar, manageable units often automatically (ex. memorizing 43 letters as 7 words)

New cards
25

mnemonics

memory aids using imagery and organizational devices (ex. acronyms, PEMDAS)

New cards
26

peg-word system

mnemonic using jingle (ex. one is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree, etc)

New cards
27

hierarchies

process info in ordering a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts, used to gain expertise (ex. chapters in textbook divided into subchapters)

New cards
28

spacing effect

tendency for distributed study or practice to build better long term retention than achieved through mass study or practice (ex. studying over long time)

New cards
29

massed practice

cramming, produce speedy short term learning and confidence, forget faster

New cards
30

distributed practice

spread review time to remember better

New cards
31

Hermann Ebbinghaus

spacing effect, retention curve for relearning and memory retention

New cards
32

testing effect (retrievable practice effect/test enhanced learning)

enhanced memory after retrieving rather than rereading info, testing improves learning, Roediger and Jefferly Karpiche

New cards
33

shallow processing

encoding on basic level based on structure or appearance of words (LOP)

New cards
34

structural processing

recognize structure of word (ex. recognizing name) (LOP)

New cards
35

phonemic processing

recognizing the sound of a word (ex. knowing someone's name rhymes with something) (LOP)

New cards
36

semantic processing

recognize a word and know the meaning (ex. knowing name of person) (LOP)

New cards
37

deep processing

encoding semantically based on meaning of words, yields best retention (LOP)

New cards
38

William Brener

minds fill in the image like screen director filling in script (ex. threw rock through window vs threw rock at window)

New cards
39

frontal lobe

working memory processing

New cards
40

hippocampus

“save button” for explicit memory (ex. names, images, events)

New cards
41

memory consolidation

neural storage of long term memory, hippocampus acts as “loading dock”, registers and temporarily holds element of remembered episode (smell, feel, sound, location), memory shifts to storage

New cards
42

cerebellum

forming and storing implicit memories from classical conditioning

New cards
43

basal ganglia

formation of procedural skill memories

New cards
44

infantile amnesia

conscious memory of first three years is blank, index explicit using words children haven’t learned, hippocampus is the last structure to mature

New cards
45

amygdala

stress hormones focus memory, strong emotional events cause strong vivid memory (ex. shooting, rape, etc)

New cards
46

flashbulb memory

clear memory of emotionally significant moment/event

New cards
47

long-term potentiation

increase in cell firing potential after brief rapid stimulation, neural basis for learning and memory, rapid stimulating certain memory circuit connections increased sensitivity for hours/weeks, less prompting to release neurotransmitter

New cards
48

retrieval cue

encode info memory target piece of info, associate with other bits of info, retrieving memory like storage by web of associations, interconnected, more retrieval cues, better chance of finding memory (ex. name of person, sights, smells)

New cards
49

priming

unconscious activation of particular associations in memory (ex. “rabbit” predisposes you to thing “hare”)

New cards
50

encoding specificity principle

cues and contexts specific to particular memory must be effective in helping recall it, memory depends on context (ex. remember an event in a specific location)

New cards
51

state-dependent memory

what is learned in one state (drunk or sober) is recalled when back in that state

New cards
52

mood congruent

tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good/bad mood, emotions associate with good/bad events become retrieval cues

New cards
53

serial position effect

tendency to recall best the first + last items in a list (ex. remember first and last couple presidents)

New cards
54

recency effect

recall last items, still in working memory

New cards
55

primacy effect

recall first items, rehearse first items more than last

New cards
56

anterograde amnesia

inability to form new memories, can remember past

New cards
57

retrograde amnesia

inability to retrieve info from past

New cards
58

encoding failure

don’t notice and fail to encode don’t make it to long term memory and forget, slower encoding when older, forget easier

New cards
59

storage decay

forget even if encoded well, forgetting is initially rapid, then levels off with time (ex. people taking high school spanish forget a lot after, but what they remember they remember after

New cards
60

retrieval failure

forget from not being able to retrieve from long term (ex. “on the tip of my tongue")

New cards
61

proactive interference

forward acting disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new info, (ex. using an old combination on a new lock with a different combo)

New cards
62

retroactive interference

backward acting disruptive effect of new learning on recall of old info (ex. sing new lyrics to old song, forget old lyrics)

New cards
63

repression

psychoanalytic theory basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, memories, can be brought back through retrieval cue/therapy, today psychologists believe repression doesn’t happen often (Sigmund Freud)

New cards
64

reconsolidation

process in which previously stored memories when retrieved are potentially altered before stored again

New cards
65

misinformation effect

misleading info corrupts memory of event, feel confident and misremember

New cards
66

source amnesia (source misattribution)

attributing to the wrong source an event that was experienced, heard about, read, imagined (ex. Piaget thought nursemaid thwarted kidnapping from story)

New cards
67

déjà vu

sense of “I’ve experienced this before”, cues from current situation unconsciously trigger retrieval of earlier experience

New cards
68

cognition

mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, communicating

New cards
69

concept

mental grouping similar objects, events, ideas, people, simplifying thinking (ex. concept “chair” means high chair, recliner chair, dentist chair, etc)

New cards
70

prototypes

mental image or best example of category, match new items to prototype provide quick easy method for sorting items into categories (ex. a robin is more like a bird than a penguin because it fits better into bird prototype)

New cards
71

algorithm

methodical, logical rule/procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem, always arrives at answer, slower (ex. guess and check)

New cards
72

heuristic

simple thinking strategy that allows the making of judgement and solve problems efficiently, faster but more accident prone (ex. solve word scramble by grouping common letters together)

New cards
73

insight

sudden realization of problems solution, no method, “aha moment”

New cards
74

confirmation bias

tendency to search for info that supports preconceptions and ignore/distort contradictory evidence, rather be right than correct (ex. believing vaccines cause autism)

New cards
75

mental set

tendency to approach problem in one particular way often one successful in the past, predisposing how we think (ex. pushing pull door because you are used to pushing doors open)

New cards
76

fixation

mental set preventing one from taking a fresh perspective (ex. writers block)

New cards
77

intuition

effortless, immediate feeling or thought, contrasted with explicit conscious reasoning

New cards
78

availability heuristic

estimating likelihood of events based on their availability in memory, if instance comes to mind vividly, more likely to presume common (ex. saw on social media, believed it was real) (Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman)

New cards
79

overconfidence

tendency to be more confident than correct, overestimate accuracy of beliefs and judgements

New cards
80

belief perseverance

clinging to ones initial conceptions after basis on which they were formed has been discredited

New cards
81

framing

the way as issue is posed, can significantly affect decisions and judgments (ex. 10% people die vs 90% people survive)

New cards
82

creativity

ability to produce new and valuable ideas (ex. solution to Fermats last theorem)

New cards
83

aptitude

ability to learn

New cards
84

convergent thinking

narrowing the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution, intelligence tests tests this ability

New cards
85

divergent thinking

expanding the number of possible problem solutions, creative thinking that diverges in different directions, creativity tests tests this

New cards
86

imaginative thinking skills

provide ability to see things in novel ways, recognize patterns, make connections, after mastering problems basic elements, explore in new ways (ex. Copernicus mastered solar system and planets, then discovered planets went around the sun)

New cards
87

Wolfgang Kohler

believed humans aren’t the only creatures to display insight, a chimp stopped, surveyed scene, then figured out a way to solve its issue

New cards
88

language

spoken, written, signed words and ways we combine them to communicate meaning, info moving from one brain to another, comprehend what never saw or what distant ancestors never knew

New cards
89

phonemes

in language, smallest distinctive sound unit (ex. that=th + a + t)

New cards
90

morphemes

in language, smallest unit carrying meaning, may be part of a word (ex. bat, pre-, -ed)

New cards
91

grammar

system of rules that enables communication with understanding others

New cards
92

semantics

set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds

New cards
93

syntax

set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences

New cards
94

receptive language

ability to understand what is said, infants develop language comprehension faster than language production, recognize sounds and words, can lip read

New cards
95

productive language

ability to produce words, recognize noun-verb differences

New cards
96

babbling stage

beginning at about 4 months, stage of speech development where infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to household language, consonant-vowel pair, 10 months they start to imitate, lose ability to hear/produce sound outside native language if don’t hear (ex. da-da, ma-ma)

New cards
97

one-word stage

age 1-2, stage in speech development child mostly speaks in single words (ex. “doggy” means look at dog

New cards
98

two-word stage

about age 2, stage in speech development child speaks in mostly two-word sentences (ex “want juice”)

New cards
99

telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which child speaks like telegram, mostly nouns and verbs, follow syntax, adjectives before words (ex. “go car”)

New cards
100

universal grammar

all languages share basic elements, all have nouns, verbs, adjectives, humans predisposed to learn grammar rules (Noam Chomsky)

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 109 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard90 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 40 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(15)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard96 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 50 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard93 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)